One point Swales brought up was that communication is necessary to fall under the category of a discourse community and that each discourse community must have a unique way of communicating (221). That is a way of saying that each discourse community must have their own language. If a group of people are really part of the discourse community, then they will be able to communicate fluently (Swales 221). Communication and language is a very hot topic in Gee’s article and we see that when he says, “Someone can speak English, but not fluently. However, someone cannot engage in a discourse in a less than fluent matter.
Shirahata (2006) cited Selinker (1972) as naming that linguistic system that L2 learners use and is different from their L1 and a target language as “Interlanguage”. He claimed that L2 learners have different linguistic systems of Interlanguage respectively and furthermore it has dynamic features and even the same L2 learners get to have different systems depending on their developmental stage and learning process. Interestingly, it was found from an analysis of interlanguage that some consistent errors exist in a linguistic system of language use of L2 learners and that L2 learners acquire L2 through a similar process even if their L1 is different, although it is possible to be somewhat different. As we mentioned in section 2.3, it was reported that L2 acquisition has a predictable acquisition order in morphology and syntax in common with L1 acquisition. In this way, from 1970s to 1980s, it had been gradually clear that L2 learners have possibility to acquire L2, using systematically some language systems on the basis of input of L2 that they
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
That’s why the lexicographers took the role to start writing dictionaries. These dictionaries had everything that the grammarians had in their dictionary. Lexicographers had a stronger base from which to impose correctness on the vernacular. In the 17th century the dictionaries were bilingual and monolingual but they only focused on hard words list, and their definitions. In the 18th century dictionary was
1.1 Background of the Study Every language has its own idiomatic expression in the form of words, phrases, and expression which has a purpose to express the meaning through the lexical item. Idiom is a group of words whose meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words, for example: ‘Let the cat out of the bag’ is an idiom which means to tell a secret by mistake (Hornby, 2010:744). Every idiom is commonly difficult to understand because it has special meaning and also it cannot be translated literally. In understanding the meaning of idiomatic expression, we should also learn the other cultures to get the meaning of what idiom that the culture used. According to Goffin and McMordie (1976:6), idiomatic expression are to be
Children with motor speech control or more likely to have trouble with morphemes, like /s/ or /z/, making it so they do not use plural forms. Another thing found in motor speech disorders is disorganized or omitted words in sentences, or sentences being simplified because they have difficulty with speech production. All of these problems with morphology and syntax can be easily fixed with the help of a speech pathologist. One major tool that basically all speech pathologist use is Brown’s stages of syntactic and morphological development. “Browns stages of development was developed by Roger Brown, the stages help determine what path the normal expressive language development in English, in terms of morphology and syntax.
Even if genetically we are designed to acquire a language, the communication with people sharing the same language’s characteristics is essential. This interaction’s crucial role would explain the obvious nurture importance in the process of acquiring a language. Many linguists have defended the importance of the environment and experiences in the acquisition of a language. Piaget argued that language is not the direct result of an innate characteristic but a capacity related to cognitive development. There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process.
Definition of bilingualism The notion of bilingualism is frequently connected to the idea of code-switching since a person should have ability to speak using two or more than one variety. Researchers have made countless studies describing bilingualism as they create awareness in different ways. To begin with is Bloomfield (1933) who defined bilingualism as having the “native- like control of two languages”. However, Haugen (1953) pinpointed that bilingualism is the ability of a speaker to communicate and understand an additional variety. This is to mean that the concept of bilingualism exist only when an individual of a certain variety has the capability to communicate effectively in an additional variety.
So we know Language processing involves the reconstruction of meaning through prior knowledge. Top-down skills include surveying, skimming, scanning, reading for full comprehension, reading between the lines (inference), and reacting personally to reading texts. Even though we do not know the meaning of the word in a sentence, we can recognize and relate to something which makes sense with help of adverbs or adjectives in the sentence. By using their knowledge of context and co-text, they should either be able to guess the meaning of the unknown word, or understand the general idea without getting distracted by it. Example of common top-down listening activities include placing a series of pictures or sequence of events in order, listening to conversations and identifying where they take place, reading information about a topic then listening to find whether or not the same opinions are
Similarly word summarization is also just like a text summarization in which we will give the text as a paragraph and from that text we can find the word summary using Word Sense Disambiguation technique. 1.3 Word sense disambiguation Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging technique in Natural Language Processing. There are some words in the natural languages which can cause ambiguity about the sense of the word. Those words are called polysemous words. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the solution to the problem.