This carbonic acid is highly reactive and dissociates into H+ ions and HCO3− ions. This reaction is continuous and fast allowing for a constant flow of carbon dioxide from tissues to the bloodstream. The free H+ ions bind to haemoglobin and the HCO3- binds to the RBC’s via the chloride shift process. When the blood reaches the lungs the process is reversed and the HCO3- ion is released from the red blood cells and the H+ ion is also released from the haemoglobin. These two free ions bind together forming a carbonic acid intermediate that reacts further with carbonic anhydrase converting it back into a gas.
Blood in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava and passes to the ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation_ where the oxygen is used and diabolized to carbon dioxide. Describe the condition Hypertension: This is blood pressure that consistently remains above the normal level of 120/80. Causes: kidney disease, smoking, alcohol and diet.
Most of the blood flow across to the left atrium through the foramen ovale. Then blood moves down into the left ventricle. It is then pumped into the ascending aorta. From the aorta, the oxygen-rich blood is sent to the brain, to the heart muscle, and to the lower body. Blood returning to the heart from the fetal body contains carbon dioxide and waste products as it enters the right atrium.
The blood is brick red in colour because it has oxygen and carbon dioxide. I understand this from reading L. Tucker’s book. The cardiac cycle The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occur when the heart beats. According to L. Tucker, the following occurs during the cardiac cycle: • The left and right atria contract, forcing blood into the
As presented in both figures, the line depicting the mean is quite steadily rising as the speed increases. For example, figure 1 exemplifies the impact exercise has on the heart rate. As seen in the graph, the average heart rate starts at a resting 83.3 beats per minute and rises steadily to the peak heart rate of 160 beats per minute at the fastest speed (8km/h). This coincides with the results shown in figure 2, the impact of exercise on thee breathing rate. The graph describes the steady rise of the breathing rate from a resting 34 breaths per minute, to an increase over 40, 48, to 52 and finally, a peak of 54 breaths per minute.
This concept is taken from Block 4, Module 7 which is entitled as ‘Assessment of cardiovascular system’. The cardiovascular system can also be referred to as the circulatory system. It comprises of the heart and the blood vessels. The major function of the cardiovascular system is to transport nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body and to remove waste products from the body like carbondioxide. The heart pumps the blood while the blood vessels deliver blood to all body parts.
Respiratory sounds can also define as breath sounds or lung sounds. It is generated through the turbulence of airflow in our respiratory tract. The air breath in and out are transmitted through air, liquid and solid and to the chest wall. Each properties of substance that the air attenuated lead to different degree and intensity of breath sounds (Jones, 1995a). Breath sounds can divided into three type, normal, abnormal and diminished (Alexandra Hough, 2001).
A spirometer generates a spirogram which is used to measure a person’s total lung capacity (the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold), tidal volume (the amount of air moving into or out of the lungs during one breathing cycle), and functional residual capacity (the volume of air left in the lungs after passive respiration) (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015). A spirometer can also measure additional air that is inhaled and exhaled from a person’s normal respiration called inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015).
Section A – Part II Cardiac cycle or heartbeat Blood enters and fills both atriums at the same time. When full the pressure causes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves to open and flows into the ventricles. Contraction (systole) of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and atriums relax (diastole). The pressure closes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves (causes the first sound of the heart beat).
The bronchi and bronchioles are where air passes through either the nose or mouth, and toward the alveoli in the lungs. The airway splits into left and right braches. It splits down further and further until it reaches the terminal bronchioles. The bronchi have a very similar structure to the trachea. They both have c-shaped cartilage.
•Then travels to the bachmann’s bundle and the internodal pathways... •The internodal pathways then join together at the atrioventricular node... •As the bundle of his goes down the septum (the wall that divides the two sides of the heart) • it splits into the left and right bundle branch... •Which then produces the terminal purkinje fibres which travel up to the left and right ventricles (lower chamber of the heart) Structure of the heart The heart is basically a muscular, strong pumping organ that is located on the body’s midline in the chest area. The apex (located at the bottom tip of the heart) is turned more to the left so around 23 of the heart is found on the body’s left side, whilst 13 is on the right side. The heart’s base (the top of the heart) connects to the blood vessels (the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary trunk and pulmonary veins) of the body. The heart also has four chambers. The two atria (that are located either side of the heart) collect the blood and the two ventricles (also located either side of the heart) pump the blood out of the heart.
Transposition of the Great Arteries, Pediatric A good way to understand this condition is to first think about how blood flows in the body. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other places in the body. The two largest of these arteries are called the great arteries. One of them, the pulmonary artery, takes blood from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs, oxygen is added to the blood.
VO2 Max varies in every individual (1). Women typically have a lower VO2 Max than men because men generally have larger hearts and lungs that pump more blood and diffuse in more oxygen (1). Oxygen is brought into the body through the lungs and diffused into the body through the alveoli, so the larger the lungs, the more oxygen can be brought in to be used (2, 5). Pulmonary diffusion, the rate at which gas is exchanged between the lungs and the bloodstream, is another factor limiting oxygen for endurance exercise (3). Another factor is running speed, as the more muscle tissue that is active at any given moment, the more oxygen that is demand (5).
(2002), it was found that females with a history of stress fractures showed greater peak impact forces, higher loading rates and a greater peak tibial acceleration than a group of control females who did not have a history of stress fractures. James et al. (1978) stated that the average runner could run up to 130km/week meaning the lower limb is subjected to approximately 40000 impacts over a weekly period. He also states that although a limb with normal alignment may withstand this type of repeated loading, an athlete with abnormal alignment, such as overpronation, can be a risk for developing an overuse running related injury. Soft tissue structures of the body such as muscles are adaptive to these forces and act to disperse forces as they move up along the
Besides the larynx the trachea is also part of the system. The trachea is branch like tubes that carry oxygen to each individual body cell. It also transmit air from the larynx to the bronchioles. Added to trachea