Structure Of Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates are generally sugars and their derivatives. Animals and humans break down carbohydrates during metabolism and release energy. E.g, chemical metabolism for sugar and glucose is

C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

Animals and humans gains carbohydrates by eating foods that contain carbohyrates , e.g rice, potatoes,breads, etc. Carbohydrates are prepared by plants during photosynthesis. Plants gain energy from sunlight to carry on the reaction
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (sunlight)  C6H12O6 + 6 O2

For example, a potato, contains glucose molecules manufactured by process of photosynthesis. In potato, these glucose molecules are bounded with each other in a long chain.
Carbohydrates are of two types , the
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For example glucose, the most important for living organisms.

Each processes requires energy to begin. This term is basically associated with energy.

Metabolism is a sequence of chemical reactions which is used to produce one or more products. Our body gain most of its energy from Fats, then from carbohydrates and the least one from proteins.

Structure of Carbohydrates:
Now see the word carbohydrate Carbo referred from carbon and hydrate is derive from water Which simply means hydrates of carbon

Above is the example of carbohydrate ribose. If we observe the structure of saccharides we came to know that they have quite resemblance with aldehydes and ketones. That’s why we name some of them as aldose and ketose due to resemblance with aldehyde and ketones respectively.

In above example ribose is an aldehyde. Here carbonyl is on the terminal carbon.

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• Generally found in different fruit juices and honey.
• It combined with glucose to generate the disaccharide sucrose
• It is more sweeter than other carbohydrates. It is 175% sweeter than table sugar, sucrose

Fructose generally exist in two forms L fructose and D fructose

Cyclic Saccharides:
Usually straight form saccharides are very reactive. To exist as stable enough to transport they forms a cyclic structure. Given below are drawings for the formation of straight-chained glucose to become cyclic.

We classified glucose as an aldose, this ring structure will also form with the ketose saccharides like fructose.

Stereochemistry of these cyclic molecules can become overwhelming. Prefixes must be introduced to describe the stereochemistry, alpha,  and beta, .

We gives different names to the rings of different numbers of sides. A five-sided ring is referred as a furanose and a six-sided ring is known as a puranose.

Here is the straight and cyclic structures for fructose, a five carbon ketose.

The two furanose rings of fructose. The alpha is on the left side , hydroxyl on the downward. The beta on the right side , hydroxyl on the

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