Every human being understands the symbols and the meanings of the universe in a unique and profound way. These symbols and their meanings evolve throughout an individual’s life. Ever wonder how these symbols meanings develop? According to the Symbolic interaction theory, symbols are culturally derived social objects with shared meanings that are created and maintained in social interaction (Symbolic Interaction). In other words, the meaning of the symbols is developed through human interaction and communication.
Lastly, culture is also a “learned” mechanism through the process of socialization and acculturation. Summing up all the definitions and descriptions, culture can be broadly defined as the understandings and practices that are shared within groups of people (Phillips, 2003) while considering that these shared understandings and practices are “heterogeneous, inextricably intertwined, loosely bounded, dynamic, and subjectively experienced” (Kramsch, 1998; Brown,2000; Kumaravadivelu, 2008). For the purpose of this study, culture is viewed as “embodied in the signs, symbols, and language” as well as the “knowledge people have acquired that shape their worldview and behavior” (Merriam, 2002, p. 236). Moreover, my understanding of culture in this research as the researcher is quite parallel to the definition of Moran
1.1 Introduction The study of “cross cultural communication” is a great example of linguistic theory and how it’s applied. Researchers are often drawn towards this area of study for its vast significance; “depending on the culture, the people, and the personal relationships throughout the world.” This is further studied to interpret sentences beyond its linguistically stated sentences. This is in turn done by observing the interactions one has, the habits it instills, and “expectations of how to show what is meant by what is said. The form of communication used over the years is “language”. It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people.
Other opinions also confirm that national culture has an important role in shaping organisation behaviour (Aldhuwaihi, 2013). Yoon (1996) even asserted that although cultural values and social norms are important for social life, their existence also
This establishes the viewpoints of the society. Personal knowledge, on the other hand, allows an individual to know and learn freely. Personal knowledge exists beyond the limits of shared knowledge. Personal knowledge allows individuals to either conform to societal thinking, or to believe against it. In both the bodies of knowledge, what is consistent is Belief.
This part of the paper deals with the results of the empirical testing of face-negotiation theory. The impact of cultural, individual and situational factors on face and facework is discussed in terms of previous research. It should not be surprising that culture, defined by Herskovits (1955) and Triandis (1972) as the human-made part of the environment, which consists of “objective and subjective elements that … became shared among those who could communicate with each other because they had a common language and lived in the same time and place” Triandis (1972, p. 3) significantly influences every aspect of our life, in particular, face concern and facework. In general, both early and further testing of the face-negotiation theory showed
Ideology works largely by creating forms of "common sense," of the taken-for-granted in everyday life. ” ideologies are systems of belief that exist within all cultures, images” (Sturken & Cartwright 2001:21). In order to explore the meaning of images, one would have to acknowledge that they are produced within dynamics of social power and ideology. Aesthetic is an ideological necessity because it shows how people can be brought together and uses ‘individual experiences’ to produce a sense of community, which then embodies ideology (Cavallaro 2001:77).Images are elements used in advertising and consumer culture. They makes us conform to the standards and ideologies that are reinforced in society.
Wardhaugh (1998) argues that language is a bearer of culture and understanding the norms of a given culture is the key to learn its language (as cited in Soori & Sherafat, 2015). Holster (2005) believes also that “language is a carrier of culture and understanding culture is integral to learning and understanding a language. Because language and culture are so inextricably related, it is not possible to understand or appreciate the one without knowledge of the other " (p. 7). Moreover, the relation between culture and language is more explained by Henslin (2004) as follows
1.0 INTRODUCTION Mass media and all media in general plays a crucial role in connecting the world of individuals. Media refers as a ‘tool’ of a mass communication. Media has the ability to reach wide audiences with strong and influential messages which impact upon society. Via the media, facts, events and viewpoints can be presented as the information to the public. Due to the existence of the media, people only rely on the media as a source of information or knowledge and without thinking twice whether it is true or not.
This importance of meanings is also the basis of Raymond Williams 's definition of culture. In The Long Revolution, he spoke of three definitions of culture: ideal, documentary and social. Ideal culture is a state or process of human perfection with a permanent reference to universal values; documentary culture is the body of intellectual and imaginative words that record human thought and experience; social culture is a whole way of life 'which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behaviour