Stuart Hall's Communication Theory

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Stuart Hall forwarded in his new model of communication that the production and circulation of meaning do not solely reside at any particular moment of the circuit model. Instead, he mentioned that the model (which he proposed as an alternative to the traditional model that works in a linear fashion) comprises of what he called “moments”. Hall used the term “moment” to refer to the circulation and distribution of meaning. These “moments” in the model include: “moment” of encoding, “moment” of the text, and “moment” of decoding. These “moments” in the communication model show that the production of meaning happens all throughout and is governed by the following principles: over determination and relative autonomy. Relative autonomy forwards that the meanings in the “moments” found in the different phases in the communication model are not identical but are related. In order to illustrate the “moments” in Hall’s communication model, we use the cover photo of the magazine Rolling Stone which features Pope Benedict XVI with the tagline “The times: They are a-changin’”. “Moments” of encoding Encoding signifies the entrance to the circulation and production of meaning in the communication model. This is where the production and construction of the text is made. The production of the message is affected by the different framework of knowledge. Hall mentioned that this is framed by the different meanings, ideas, professional ideologies, and institutional knowledge. In the case of

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