These reports imply that familiar concepts such as brand logos or even as general as random words are percieved with greater accuracy, suggesting past experience mediates perception. Indirect perception implies that it is not actually of the environment itself but a cognitive representation of the environment that we percieve, assembeled by and existing in the brain. It is by the process of construction in which our seneses consult memories of prior experience before delivering a visual interpretation of the visual world. It argues that there is no direct way to examine objects that is independent of our conception; that perception is
4. Theoritical Framework: Discourse Analysis: Discourse (DA) is a modern discipline of the social sciences that covers a wide variety of different sociolinguistic approaches. Discourse analysts looks at any given text, and this just means anything that communicates a message, and particularly, how that message constructs a social reality or view of the world. The interpretation of a discourse element is dependent on another element that can be pointed out in discourse. (Renkema ,1993, 40).
Throughout this essay I will discuss the problem of causation and why Hume argues that all knowledge of matters of fact depends on causation, the role that habit plays in the formation of the idea of causes, the implication of Hume’s critique of causation, and whether I agree or disagree with him “Cause and effects are discoverable, not by reason but by experience” (Hume pg.15). David Hume born on May 7, was a Scottish philosopher that spoke of causation. According to David Hume, when we say that X causes Y, we mean that X’s are constantly conjoined with Y’s, Y always follows X , so there is a necessary connection between X’s and Y’s. Whenever X occurs Y must follow. For example, when there is fire there is smoke.
The methods used in this research are twofold. Firstly, I used paradigmatic analysis to understand the aesthetics of independent publications and their choice to use one design element in place of another; and secondly, I applied the ‘Uses and Gratifications’ theory of Katz and Blumler (1974), and the ‘Medium is the Message’ theory of McLuhan (1964) to understand consumer motivations for magazine usage, and investigate whether the publication’s paradigm choices have an effect on this. THEORETIC BACKGROUND Semiotics Ferdinand de Saussure (1916) defined a sign as containing a signifier, the form the sign takes; and the signified, the concept it represents. The sign is the result from the connotation between the signifier with the signified(59). Crucially, meaning results from from the differences between signifiers, which are syntagmatic differences (concerning positioning) and paradigmatic differences (concerning substitution)(74).
However, it is not a closed off system, it draws statements from and into other discourses. A discourse in this understanding is not based on the classical distinction between thought and action, it “(…) is about the production of knowledge through language. But it is itself produced by a practice: “discursive practice” – the practice of producing meaning” (Hall, 2006:165). It follows that because all social practices involve meaning, all practices necessarily have a discursive side. A discourse is comparable to what sociologists would call an ‘ideology’.
A linear threshold model is a receiver centric model where each node is associated with a threshold and passes on the information only when the incoming influences exceed the threshold. An independent cascade model, on the other hand is sender centric. Each node that has obtained the information attempts to activate its neighbours once. F. Wang, H. Wang and K. Xu  proposed a partial differential equation to model both the temporal and topological dynamics of diffusion of information that is injected into the network. But topology is considered only in terms of distance from the source.
To understand the difference between a category and a placement we should know that categories have fixed meanings that are accepted within the framework of a theory, whereas placements generate new perceptions, they have boundaries only to shape and constrain the meaning. Therefore, this leads us to the point that the placements when they are applied to problems in concrete circumstances they are sources of new ideas and possibilities. The inventiveness of designer is the ability to return placements and apply them into new situations, seeing possibilities through conceptual placements "open ended solutions rather than closed ended solutions" (Tim Brown, Designers think