Dunn & Mulvenon (2009, p. 3) describe it as an assessment designed to “determine a students’ academic development after a set unit of material” while Moss (2012, p. 235) defines it as determining “the student’s overall achievement in a specific area of learning at a particular time”. Regardless of how summative assessment is defined, it is considered to be generally evaluative as results may be recorded as scores or grades. Summative assessment occurs in many forms but the current Junior Certificate falls into that of standardised testing. In research carried out by Shiel,Kellaghan and Moran (2010) for the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA), they suggested placing standardised testing into three different contexts. Firstly classroom use, where the individual achienvements of the students were of main concern.
In educational institutions, success is measured by academic performance. Students encounters a lot of pressures and challenges in the academic environment as they pursue to keep up the best performance or even to continue in the academic program. Good academic leads to offer more career choices and job security. Students vary in their performance levels. They receive and process information differently.
Most students feel that the grades they get in school reflects them as a person but is this necessarily true? Schools have taught them that if they don't reach a certain academic standard they are not viewed as smart. Grades have a huge part in making people believe that those grades are given to them based upon their knowledge and not exactly on how hard a student works to get those grades. Grades do not depict the hard work a student puts in, but it shows how much knowledge someone has. The grading scale for every school varies from one school to the next.
Lots of work has been done in this using data mining. Using the historical information and the current semester data students’ performance can be predicted. Many of association rule mining algorithms can be used to generate the frequent item sets which can be useful to predict the students’ performance. Kalpesh Adhatrao et al.  have applied different decision tree algorithms like ID3(Iterative Dichotomiser) and C4.5 to predict students academic performances and checked their accuracy to choose the appropriate algorithm that could be effectively applied.
The academic performance of students reflects on their ability to demonstrate the knowledge they have learnt in tests, quizzes, presentations and final examination (Barkley, 2004). The importance of students’ performance is not only evident to the students but also to the universities as it is a measure the success of their education process. Studies in the education literature have examined the factors that may influence students’ performance that include physical facilities and qualified educators, students’ attitudes, aspirations and self-awareness (Hijazi and Naqvi 2006; Garkaza et al. 2011; Cosmas et al. 2013; Al-Hadrami and Morris 2014).
Associations between these variables have concluded that an individual’s level of intellectual achievement is dependent upon the level of influence that outside forces have on a student. The research presented by Haimovitz et al. (2011) on intelligence and intrinsic motivation components focused on investigating and measuring the association of malleability and academic performance within a one-year academic timeframe. The study yielded positive results that beliefs about intelligence or ability-validation do in fact play a role in intrinsic motivation and academic success. However, results of the study could not find significant differences between an individual’s grade level and intrinsic motivation.
Reddan (2013) states that motivation has been defined as the directions and intensity of one's effort. According to Sage (1977), Grade 10 students, or simply the students, need one's effort for them to go to a next stage or level. Also, students have many strategic patterns in the way of study. They study alone like book-self-book or sometimes their study with friends just like books- friends-self-friends-books but that students need a concentration of their energies for them to get a better degree or a higher mark and not red marks. But the primary purpose of the grading system is to measure the student's achievement and the student potential, not to determine your personality because grades are just numbers.
In that, to explore the outcome (academic performance), the four critical components contributing to the outcome were considered. These include (i) Understanding of the subject matter by the students, (ii) Teaching methodology adopted; (iii) Evaluation methods adopted in the College and; (iv) regularity of the students to the Class. Further, an interactive questionnaire was prepared, in order to discover the hidden perception of the students about the ‘shortcomings’, so that the learning environment of the students and the college will be congenial for mutual growth. The non-conformance levels among the response from the students were corresponding to the Existing training system adopted in the College. While the other categories such as ‘time allocation for completing the course instructions’, ‘exposure to advanced course work’, ‘Quality of lecture’ , ‘Semester & lesson planning system’ and ‘revision / recapitalization methods’ were also indicated by the students as ‘inadequate’ and needs improvement.” (Arun Vijay As
Study habits itself affects the Academic performance of students taking up BS Accountancy measured by their General points average (GPA). According to Nonis & Hudson (2010), Study Habits can have either positive or negative effects with academic performance because of its direct relationship with it. There is a positive effect of study habits if one’s General Percentage Average (GPA) were good or high on the other hand, if their grades are below average there is a negative impact on it. Positive or negative effect is based on grades because it represents the academic performance of each student. Every student wants to aim for a high grades, and in order to achieve it students should know how to be effective.
Besides intellectual ability, there are other factors that play important roles in academic achievement of students. One might get the impression that learning is typically a solitary affair (Taylor Brunye 2013). Over the years, research have proven that a relatively large number of studies example Wigfield & Cambria 2010, Hustinx, Kuyper, Van der Werf et al., 2009 Chowdhuny & Shahabuddin 2007, Elliot, McGcregor & Gable 1999, etc. conducted have shown that students with good academic achievement is closely related to two correlated psychological component, self-regulated learning and motivational beliefs. This allows for opportunity to students to control their learning.