The SWBS, one of the most commonly used scales to study SWB, was first developed by Paloutzian and Ellison (1982) is a paper and pencil scale with approximately 20 items. The scale consists of two dimensions, namely religious well-being and existential well-being, which measure an individual’s relationship with God as well as life satisfaction, spirituality, and purpose in life, respectively (Ellison 1983; Paloutzian and Ellison 1982). This scale is for use with adults and the participant could complete in 10-15 minutes. The items are constructed in a modified Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (numerical value of 1) to strongly agree (numerical value of 6) with no middle value. Scores will range from 10 to 60 on the subscales (EWB & RWB) and 20-120 on the SWBS value.
The Family Systems Stressor-Strength Inventory (FS3I) is an assessment/measurement instrument intended for use with families. Its purpose is to on identify stressful situations occurring in families and to determine strengths families use to maintain healthy family functioning. In utilizing this instrument, each family member is asked to complete the instrument on an individual form before an interview with the clinician. Questions can be read to members unable to read. Following completion of the instrument the clinician evaluates the family on each of the stressful situations, either general or specific and the available strengths they possess.
The scale has shown substantial reliability tested by internal consistency as well as good test-retest reliability. The inventory contains 15 item at 4-point rating scale that combine measures of feelings of fear/anxiety and feelings of depression/anger (Mitchell & Hastings, 1998). SELF -EFFICACY The scores of self efficacy related to challenging behaviour can be operationalized by Difficult Behaviour Self-Efficacy Scale (Hasting, R. P., & Brown, 2002) which include scale of five items. These five items include direct questions about feelings of confidence, personal difficulties, possible positive effect, satisfaction and control of when dealing with challenging behaviour. Furthermore, the rating scale factor structure, reliability and validity
The WMI is a measure of working memory abilities, which involve attention, concentration, mental control and reasoning. The PSI is composed of subtests measuring the speed of mental and eye/hand coordination. The PSI provides a measure of the child’s ability to quickly and correctly scan, sequence, or discriminate simple visual information. This composite also measures short-term memory, attention, and visual-motor coordination. The WAIS-IV uses standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15) for the VCI, PRI, WMI, PSI, GAI, Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) and FSIQ, and scaled scores (M = 10, SD = 3) for the 15 subtests (Sattler & Ryan, 2009).
Stress. Stress, a complex phenomenon involving the process of interaction between individual and the environment (Cox et al., 2000), is conceptualized as the response to an inappropriate level of pressure or environmental threat rather than the pressure itself (Arroba & James, 1987, p. 21; Ogden, 2007). Along with high level of stress, psychological, biochemical, behavioral and physiological symptoms may occur, which may lead to an increase in dissatisfaction, anxiety, psychological and physical deterioration (Cox et al., 2000). For example, the body’s immune system’s capability of preventing from illness is considered to be affected by neurological and hormonal changes (McEwen, 2006). Moreover, occupational stress has been directly related
All individuals who deal directly (doctors and nurses) or indirectly (those who help doctors in theatre rooms, but don not perform surgeries) with patients who are being admitted. 4.4.5. Measuring instruments Measuring instruments which will be utilised in the following study include the Occupational Stress Index (OIS), the Experience of work and Life circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ) and the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI). The occupational Stress Index The occupational stress index is assessment model which focuses mainly on the work stressors that are relevant to the cardiovascular system on an individual; the measurement also derives from cognitive ergonomics and brain search (Wigger, 2011). The study will make use of the Occupational Stress Index in assessing stress in the health practitioner’s workplace by focusing on the dimensions of OIS.
The State Anxiety Inventory measures anxiety at the time of assessment, which can fluctuate over time. The Trait Anxiety Inventory measures anxiety level as a personal characteristic, which is stable over time. Each scale included 20 items with a response scale of 1-4. The scales’ total score ranges from 20 to 80, with higher scores indicating higher anxiety. The STAI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89) (22).
MITCOE, Department of Computer Engineering, Pune 2015-16 2 Sentimental Analysis and Emotion Recognition Chapter 2 LITERATURE SURVEY Following are the list of paper /journal/books which are helpful for us to go through this topic. Table 2.1: Literature Survey MITCOE, Department of Computer Engineering, Pune 2015-16 3 Sentimental Analysis and Emotion Recognition Chapter 3 Classification Levels Sentiment Analysis is the computational study of peoples opinions, attitudes and emotion towards an entity. The entity can represent individuals, events or topics. Sentiment Analysis identifies sentiments expressed in a text and then analyze it. Therefore, the target of SA is to find opinions, identify the sentiments they express, and then classify their polarity as shown in Fig.
Modifications are made on SUS with the intention of enhancing it and make it suitable to assess the usability of road signs. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a popular 10-item instrument in measuring the usability of diverse type of interfaces. SUS is a non- proprietary questionnaire developed by Brooke (1996). Its reliable, simple to administer and robust nature makes it a popular choice for general usability testing. Scoring the questionnaire yields a usability score in the ranges from 0 to 100.