A study conducted on four students within the age range 10-12 years old, and selected based on their limited communication; two had autism and two had a severe intellectual disability. The study taught the students the use of a switch (a basic form of AAC in which the student presses a button to play a pre-recorded message). Four variables were measured: number of communicative interactions, number of spontaneous communicative interactions, percentage of independent communicative interactions, and number of verbalizations. The study concluded that all four students increased their number of communicative interactions and that both students with autism increased their spontaneous communicative interactions (Dyches, 1998). The results from the study concerning the impact of symbolic gesturing on early language development, provides strong evidence that symbolic gesturing does not impede verbal development but could even facilitate verbal skills (Goodwyn, Acredolo, and Brown, 2000).
Brown’s Development and Speech Pathology Ever since I was little, I have always dreamed about being a speech pathologist. I went to one in my early childhood, and I was obsessed with the idea of helping children with their speech impediments. I know without Mrs. Black my speech would probably still be incomprehensible. I’ve learned so much in my speech pathology classes, and I noticed something when I first looked at our linguistic readings. When looking at the chapters for linguistics I noticed it included syntax and morphology, these are two huge factors in speech pathology.
“Diagnosing ASD in adults is harder than for children because ASD symptoms can overlap with other mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Autism Spectrum Disorder).” About 25 percent of individuals with ASD are nonverbal but can learn to communicate using other means such as sign language or pointing to objects. (About Autism) “Every child has the right to a free appropriate education. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) enacted in 1975, mandates a public education for all eligible children and the school’s responsibility for providing the support and services that will allow this to happen (Educating).” Each individual with autism is unique. Many of those on the autism spectrum have exceptional abilities in visual skills, music, and academic skills (About
87). The United States has the highest number of prison population worldwide, having more than China, which has the largest population in the world. The prison populations in the united stated had drastically increase in a short period of time. It may have to do with the broken windows policy put in place around that time that targeted minorities. Anyways the prison population should had lower by now.
More babies were born than ever before in 1946, that being 3.4 million, that 's a whopping twenty percent higher than its previous year. It went on to another 3.8 million babies born in 1947, another 3.9 million in 1952 and four million more every year until it finally began to taper off in 1962. That is enough friction to melt the sun if you will, so many as 76.4 million babies were born from 1946-1964 that they made up forty percent of the nations population and now were known as the baby boomers. There numerous theories to as why this great baby boom occurred, some say it was a deep desire for normality after sixteen years of depression and war. Others claim it was a plea to fight the scare of communism and to take over by shear numbers.
4. The change of population 4.1 The huge influx of Chinese The immigration and Nationality act of 1965 results in the booming of Chinese population in America. The number of Chinese in America was 237,292 in 1960, and it grew to be 435,062 by the end of 1970, and 806,027 in 1980. During 1969-1977, the number of Chinese immigrants mounted to 196,000. The Chinese take a greater and greater proportion of America population, with 0.14% in 1960(before the act), 0.21% in 1970, 0.35% in 1980 and 0.67% in 1990.
Hoffman and Russ (2012) first studied the behaviours of sixty-one girls in a five minute pretend play task with the use of two puppets and three blocks. Each session was videotaped and the children were assessed based on the frequency of positive and negative affective expressions displayed as well as their comfort level engaging in the task. Adding on, participants were assigned another task whereby they had to tell a story based on a picture book. The stories were then coded according to the “amount of affect expressed” and the use of emotion words (Hoffman & Russ, 2012, p. 178). Once again to ensure reliability, parents were given a questionnaire to score their child’s emotional regulation abilities.
1) The universal screening helps identify those at risk for reading disabilities and it involves the whole school. It is typically done three times throughout the whole school year. It assesses skills such as fluency in oral reading, phoneme segmentation and letter reading. The results are organized for discussion by school professionals, the scores are calculated for the students risk level determined by predetermined norms. 2) An advantage is children who need more help are placed into a category that is designed to give them the right amount of help depending on their tier placement.
Prison Overcrowding in America In our country today, we account for roughly five percent of the world’s population, yet we hold over twenty-five percent of the globe’s inmate population. According to John Irwin, we currently imprison more people for lesser crimes than any other country in the world. In 1987 alone, our prison population rested steadily at just 500,000 incarcerated inmates in the U.S. Although in the past twenty-seven years, the American prison population has actually quadruped to almost 2.4 million (Pratt, 2009). With that being said, we as a nation hold the highest recidivism rates compared to any other country.
This process required SLPs to synthesize information for multiple sources, incorporate quantitative and qualitative data, and make observations in order to fully examine an individual’s language abilities (Friberh 2010). This information alongside a standardized test can give a clinician a clear picture of where a client falls in comparison to their peers. Betz, Rickhoff, and Sullivan (2013) found, “the quality of a standardized test, as measured by the test’s psychometric properties, does not appear to influence how often it is used.” In order to successfully and ethically do their job, SLPs are required to make the strongest decisions and recommendations they can based on the data available, keeping in mind that there is no “perfect” test. SLPs need to have the skills to realize that no test is perfectly ideal, but be able to overcompensate for that loss by being able to identify what information they can use. Eisenberg and Hitchcock (2010) compared tests and found that of the 11 they compared, none met all of their standards for compiling a child’s phonemic inventory.
There are approximately 350 million individuals living with DM worldwide. In the United States, the rate of T2DM has increased in individuals of AA descent with the prevalence rate escalating in the past 30 years and has quadrupled. AAs above 20 years of age are 1.7 times more likely to be diagnosed with DM than the Caucasians. They accounted for 10.8% of all individual with diabetes (CDC, 2015). A comparison of rates of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by ethnicity and race disclosed that in 2010 the AAs diagnosed for diabetes were 13.2% of 29.1 million Americans (ADA, 2014).
During the 2008 election African-Americans came out in much larger numbers than the previous years. The 2008 presidential elections were said to be the most racially and ethnically diverse in U.S. history, with nearly one-in-four votes cast by non-whites, according to a new analysis of Census Bureau data by the Pew Research Center. The voter turnout rate among young black eligible voters was higher than that of young eligible voters of any other racial and ethnic group in 2008 (Lopez and Taylor). African- American women and younger African- American had much larger voter’s turnout than the previous presidential elections. 95% of all African American votes went to the democratic candidate Barack Obama.
In research done by by Kelley and Kohnert (2012), 8-13 year-old Spanish-speaking ELL students were tested on their recognition and production of English vocabulary to provide evidence of a cognate advantage for Spanish-speakers. The study tested 30 typically developing children who spoke Spanish at home and English at school. The researchers used two vocabulary measures in the study. The first, PPVT III, measured students’ recognition of spoken vocabulary words (their receptive vocabulary) by asking students to choose one of four pictures that corresponded to a spoken vocabulary word. The second, EOWPVT, measured their production of a vocabulary word from a given picture (their expressive vocabulary).
As you know immigration is a huge problem in the United States, data shows that over the past year’s Texas has increases its size dramatically. In the website Texas State Historical Association states data that since the year 1850 Texas started out with the population of 212,592 and on 2010 the population growth increased to 25,145,561. However, we do not know the exact number of these people that are not American Citizens. In the Washington Post it states that “there are more than 11 million immigrants living, working and establishing families in the United States illegally”. Texas has approximately 1,650,000 almost close to 1.7 million of people who are illegal immigrants that are residents here.
In the current state, prescription drug overdoses claim more lives than car accidents. In Tennessee, the number one abused substance is prescription opioids, and drug-related crimes have increased 33% in the last ten years. Opioid overdoses affect everyone, and the cost to society is huge. “In the United States, prescription opioid abuse costs were about $55.7 billion in 2007. Of this amount,