found for transesterification of soybean oil over nano CaO assisted by microwave irradiation, the optimal reaction took place at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 7, amount of catalyst of 3.0 wt.% and temperature 60oC, achieving a conversion of 96.6% at 60 min. Interestingly, they observed effect of water in methanol on the catalyst and revealed that water adsorbed dissociatively on CaO surface to form hydroxyl groups and then produced more reactive methoxy anions. Similarly with the present work, water adsorption occurred during air exposure to form Ca(OH)2 as the main component in the hydrated-calcined seashell. Methoxide anion is strong basic and has high catalytic activity in transesterification reactions . By this mechanism, therefore, the hydrated-calcined seashell effectively catalysed the palm oil conversion to biodiesel under microwave irradiation with yield of biodiesel close to equillibrium at a very short reaction time 5-10 minutes regardless catalyst
The petrochemical plants are among those industries which create some kinds of deleterious wastes that must be treated. Sodium hydroxide (Caustic) scrubbing solutions are commonly used in petrochemical (such as olefin units) for the elimination of impurities and acid constituents such as all kinds of mercaptans, CO2 and H2S . The strong caustic solutions (20 wt % NaOH) are used to extract low molecular weight mercaptans from the naphtha stream. Once these components react with the NaOH, a waste solution becomes known as a spent caustic . Average pH value of spent caustic typically is greater than 12, depending on the origin this waste contains high levels of hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan and phenol respectively .
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Because of inhabitation property of water toward complete reaction, the methanol and water mixture is separated from the oil phase. Afterward, further methanol and acid catalyst can be added and the reaction continued for the next step. We should note that if the number of pretreatment steps be increased, the ester yield reduces owing to the solubility of ester in methanol . For that reason, in this study, we tried to reduce the FFA level through one step pretreatment to achievement high ester yield and also save the time for producing BD. After each esterification, total WCF was washed twice with hot and distilled water to eliminate any reminded acid in
Producing 355.34 T/d of Polymer grade Ethylene which equals 129,721 T/year ,with Guaranteed Capacity of 1,490 T/d[z3] First the ROG as feed that comes from Deoxo reactor goes to Acetylene polisher , Acetylene polisher consist of many processes such as a)ROG drying to get rid of water for increasing the heating value of products ,b)RSH/COS Removal to ,c)Arsine removal to ,d)ROG Mercury removal which . De-Ethenizer comes next ,which have to streams comes out of it ,down stream is propylene which goes to propylene recovery unit. Top stream of the De-Ethenizer goes to the De-methanizer ,the top stream goes to the residue gas which goes to the fuel gas ,the downstream products are Ethylene and Ethane ,The Ethylene goes to Olfins Conversion unit ,while Ethane goes to Bouroge. [z5] 2)Ethanol: This method is aiming to convert Ethanol which in liquid form to more useful and profitable product using alumina catalyst ,this method also known as liquid cracking
Valenzuela et. al. (1995)  has proposed a hydrometallurgical procedure for the separation of molybdenum from Chilean molybdenite concentrate. The molybdenite concentrate was first leached with nitric acid originated from the reaction of NaNO3 and H2SO4, which provided a solid phase, composed of MoO3 and residual solution. Molybdenum was separated with alkylphosphonic acid PC-88A by solvent extraction method, from the leach liquor containing copper, rhenium and iron among other impurities.
Fourth Step: The last reaction of the urea cycle is catalyzed by arginase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of guanidino group to produce urea and ornithine. Ornthine is then transported back in the matrix of the mitochondria and the cycle is complete. Importance of Urea
The hydrogen produced from natural gas involved the manufacture of synthesis gas which contains mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen via steam reforming and then removal of the carbon monoxide to produce mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen using iron catalyst or nickel catalyst at 600K. This process is known as methanation. Then, it will undergo the Haber process to complete the production of ammonia and the produced ammonia can be used further in production of nitric acid via the Ostwald
Autoclave Autoclave which is also known as a pressure chamber. Equipments and supplies are sterilize using pressure chamber by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam. Autoclave is used as nitrator in the production of paracetamol which treat the sodium salt of p-nitrophenol with concentrated sulphuric acid at 35-45°C and acetylation of p-aminphenol which is addition of acetic anhydride into p-aminphenol. Reduction reactor Reduction reactor is used to minimize alkaline liquor trapped into sodium salt of p-nitrophenol. This is possible with proper filtration and water wash and therefore reduce the consumption of sulphuric acid for neutralization.
The results of the effect of feed flow rate on sulfate ions removal were utilized to optimize separation of sulfuric from the lignocellulosic hydrolysate liquor and can be used for further scaling up. In all experiments with batch operation of electrodialyser 1.5 L of hydrolysate liquor (synthetic or Kansas grass) was processed. Experiments with kanss grass hydrolysate liquor were conducted in a way like that of the synthetic hydrolysate liquor except the kanss grass hydrolysate liquor was permeated through a vacuum-based membrane filter prior to passing it through electrodialyser after flushing the concentrate compartment with