(Linden, 2011). The father of psychoanalysis, a great Neurologist, Sigmund Freud, categorized our minds into 3 major parts: The Id, The ego and the superego. The ego is our conscious self, the us that we are aware of. The superego is a consciousness that keeps our Id suppressed. Our Id, which is suppressed, consists of our primal instincts, impulses, desires, unchecked urges, thoughts and ideas and emotions.
Murfin compares Freud’s levels of the mind, based around structure or purpose, to an iceberg. It consists of three parts - the id, the ego and the superego. “The id, the part of the iceberg completely submerged in the unconscious, is driven by one’s libido and consists of the inherited components of one’s personality, including one’s sexual instinct. The second part of the iceberg, the ego, found in both the unconscious and conscious mind, can gain purpose from fulfilling the desires of the id. However, the ego–because it wavers between the unconscious and conscious only fulfills the desires of the id in ways that are socially acceptable.
By listening and observing them, he came to the conclusion that everything that is done, had an unconscious cause. A way to demonstrates Freud’s perspective is using the iceberg analogy, there are three parts that make up the iceberg, these parts include the id, ego , and superego. The id is basically the drive that doesn’t think the situation through, it is known as the pleasure principle, the ego is the drive that puts the situation into reality, it’s known as the reality principle, the superego is literally the brain of all three. Ironically, the superego is what judges what is right and wrong, also called conscience, an example would be me wanting to eat ice cream. My id yells for me to eat the ice cream right now, while my ego says that I can just eat a small bowl
It is that part of the id which has been modified by the influence of the external world (Freud, S. 1923). The ego is developed in order to mediate between the unrealistic demands of the id and the reality of the world we live in. It is the main component of personality that is involved in decision making. Whereas the id operates on the principle of pleasure, the ego works by reason. According to Freud, the ego works on the reality principle, figuring out realistic ways of achieving what the subconscious desires.
Another article used is another part of Ayn Rand’s Philosophy but on the term “self-interest”. Having self-interest is part of being human and “the purpose of morality, she argues, is to teach us what is in our self-interest, what produces happiness”, this sentence also ties with the words “self” and “ego”. Having an ego or being an egoist has its limits, though. People should care for themselves, but also care for others because ego is more of a balance in which one can’t work without the other. The beneficial side of ego is that it “constitutes the essential identity of a human being” (Rand Introduction) but the detrimental side, according to visionlaunch.com, is that it can “completely eliminate objectivity”.
J. Eysenck, who felt that in order to enhance our understanding of problem solving behavior, there is a need to assume acientific research methods and entirely reassess psychoanalytic theory. Eysenck put much effort in classifying human behavior rather than attempting to understand the individual. He attempted to classify human behavior using the concepts of trait and type (p.371). Eysenck 1967 (cited in Singh, 2005, p.126) “identifies the major component of personality features. For instance, people who are considered as an extrovert according to Eysenck’s extroverted type are believed to have charecteristics such as sociability, liveliness, and excitability,” according to Boeree (2006), Eysenck’s hypothesis points to the fact that extroversion/ introversion is the matter of inhibition and excitation in the brain itself.
Those mechanisms are functions carried out by the ego. They are a strategic effort by the ego to deal with socially unacceptable impulses of the id. According to S. Freud’s definition, reaction formation is when an individual feels an unacceptable impulse, however only express the opposite. In the article the authors describe reaction formation exactly as Freud did. Overall, there has been plenty of studies to show whether this defense mechanism is still valid
The child experiences pleasure from the elimination of faeces. According to Freud, this brings them into conflict with their parents. Random elimination (as demanded by the id) incurs parental displeasure, yet withholding elimination (as requested by the parents) is denying the demands of the id, which until this point has been the source of all motivation. The resolution of this conflict requires the development of the ego, and as such has important implications for behaviours later in
This is because, Erikson's theory was based on many Freud's ideas. Both Freud and Erikson emphasise the importance of unconscious mind on personality development. Additionally, these two theories both separate development into stages of a person's life and use similar age divisions for these developmental stages. Similarities of psychosexual theories of Freud and psychosocial theory of Erikson. Though, there are few similarities of Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory, the major differences of the stages and the developmental issues that are explained in both the theories.
In his theory Jung differentiated between two types of unconsciousness: a collective and a personal one. He believed that archetypes are contained in the collective unconscious, which he understands as a type of knowledge all the people from a given group are born with, they are intrinsic to them. Despite not being aware the collective unconscious it dictates how people act in certain situations, mainly those related to emotions. For Jung the personal unconscious stores what could be conscious at any moment but is
The definition of morality according to oxford dictionaries, is principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong and good and bad behaviour. It is the difference of intentions, decisions and actions between those that a considered as moral and immoral behaviour. The definition of debate is a formal discussion/ argument on a specific subject in which opposing groups put their argument forward and most of the time it ends in a vote. The assumptions of the psychodynamic approach are that your instincts and impulses are present at birth and the causes of behaviour are your feelings, emotions and childhood experiences. Instincts and impulses drive interactions from within the unconscious mind.