In essence, non-metaphysical sciences are two-fold; prior or absolute knowledge and knowledge from observation and experiments (Persson 165-181). Theories can be mistaken, are often inconclusive and therefore are not factual. Most tenets of scientific theories are assumptions, hypotheses, and postulations. On the other hand, the human senses are deceptive representations of the mind and are also incomplete. As such, they cannot be trusted to provide accurate information in experiments and
Most famously advocated by René Descartes, substance dualism is the view that minds, which are essentially thinking and consist of mental substance, and bodies, which are necessarily extended and made of material substance, are ontologically separate entities. The material and mental have entirely different natures, so a mind cannot be equivalent to a body. Human beings, therefore, must be mixtures of the two substances. Substance dualists assert that, despite lacking properties in common, mind and body connect through the capacity of each to causally affect the other (Kim 34). While this position may initially appear intuitive and commonsensical, Descartes and subsequent dualists have faced a multitude of challenges concerning mental causation.
As we have learned from our previous discussions, John Locke believed that personal identity was a matter of psychological continuity. He believed that the “self”, or personal identity was not founded on substance of body, or soul, but rather consciousness. Schechtman agrees with Locke’s perspective with regards to the notion that a person’s identity is not that of physical substance, but sameness of consciousness. Not only are we human beings, but persons as well. However, Schechtman feels the understanding of persistence is unsatisfactory.
The problem with identity is defining the criteria for which identity is based off over time. Many philosophers attempt to understand the way humans reason through life. This tends to lead to multiple conclusions, that overlap each other, due to the variety of background of the philosophers. Therefore, the way a philosopher chooses to identify themselves varies from person to person. Basically, there is no concrete conclusion behind how to define identity.
It was also said that one had failed the predictions of the string theory and that no one had succeeded to predict the string theory. It is hard to believe and trust a theory that scientist cannot prove. To sum this all up, the string theory is not supported and should not be trusted, in my opinion. There are a ton of missing areas, in which I believe scientists can help to prove it.
Nevertheless, the non-material form allows individuals to think about anything. In conclusion, both Aristotle and Plato’s are theories of dualism, they just differ in their explanations. Plato seems to maintain that mind and body are the same; however, Aristotle maintains that they are different.
Dualism is the idea that the mind and the body are two separate entities that are capable of interaction. Dualist argues that the mind is separate from the brain rather than the brain and the body existing as one. The brain is a physical aspect while the mind is a non-physical aspect. When the two are connected neurons send signals to our bodies from our brains to carry out actions, and vice versa. This story makes an incredible showing with regards to exhibiting how the body and the brain are discrete yet at the same time collaborates.
We are aware of its existence, but cannot physically hold it within our grasp. Despite the different definitions from several branches of science, consciousness is so abstract that the many experts of each science have a hard time finding the appropriate terms to describe it. This is part of the problem of consciousness David Chalmers discusses in his paper, Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness. Chalmers coined the term “hard problem of consciousness” in 1994. The hard problem of
Gertler’s argument defends naturalistic dualism. Naturalistic dualism is the idea that the mental state is existentially separate from the physical state. Dualism’s opposing ideology is physicalism. Physicalism is the idea that the mental and physical state are one in the same. Through this she rejects the identity theory which claims that mental states are ultimately identical to states of the brain and/or central nervous system.