Language reform in Turkey was a way to purify Turkish by removing the Arabic and Persian grammatical features inside of the language which was hard to understand by the people of the Ottoman Empire. By changing the language Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wanted to raise a new culture and a unity among the people in the New Turkish Republic. To understand language reform completely we need to know Ottoman Turkish and culture to compare and know what it was before and what it is now. Our culture has changed a lot but it is still influenced by Ottoman Empire. Even though some may try to bring those days back, the neo - ottomans, I don't think it is a good idea because Ottoman Empire's time has passed.
8. Safavid Empire (460-461) Ismail, the ancestor of Safi al-Din, founded the Safavid Empire and used Persian methods of ruling. He expanded his region over regions such as the Iranian plateau, Caucus, and central Asia. Ismail established his political base at the tomb of Safi al-Din. In an attempt to find favor in the eyes of Turkish in the region, the Safavids decided to convert to a form of Shiism - he forced the Sunnis to convert to the religion, Twelver Shiism.
The introduction of Tocqueville in the Ottoman Empire by Ariel Salzmann is an application of the concepts that Tocqueville has developed such as Ancien Régime to understand the semblance between pre revolutionary France and the Ottoman old regime . Tocqueville questions why did France cohere and the Ottoman Empire fall apart if their policies and institutional patterns were similar in character and close in timing ? Hence Tocqueville haunts the social scientific imagination of the Ottoman past as he uses comparison study to make sense of political change and the regimes in transition now that the Ottoman Studies have begun to overcome their isolated methodological frame of reference. To do so Salzmann promotes circulating analytical concepts as well as seeks to construct interpretations derived from current state of Ottoman historiography while reexamining the paradoxes that obliterate the past and remain as obstacles to understand modern political paths. In my opinion the study which Salzmann presents focuses mainly on the fiscal governance and she could have included different functions of the old regime and the eruption of modernity .
Ghazis were warriors for the Islam that followed strict Islamic rules. One of the most successful ghazis was Osman, conquering the frontiers of the Byzantine Empire, buying lands for expansion, and forming alliances with emirs. His followers became known as the Ottomans. In 1361, Osman’s son, Orkhan I declared himself a sultan. During his rule, he
He was open to innovation and influenced by the Western thoughts. He was living at a time of Ottoman Empire in which the Empire had lost its supremacy over the Europeans. At that time Katib Chelebi noticed the inadequacy of the traditional education of the Empire. His work; “The Balance of Truth”,Mizanü’l-Hakk fi ihtiyari’l-ahakk in Arabic, gives us significant informations about the religious, political, and cultural debates in the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century. “The Balance of Truth” was the Katib Chelebi’s last work which he completed in 1656.
Al-Ghazali’s educational philosophy portrays the high point of Islamic thinking on education in which he was inclined towards reconciliation and integration of various intellectual schools and managed to combine philosophical, legal and mystical educational thinking. Even though Al-Ghazali himself was a teacher in the beginning of his career, but he was not a ‘philosopher of education’. He was actually a philosopher of religion and ethics and favored continuity and stability over change and innovation. Principles of Teaching and Learning: Al-Ghazali said that man was born as tabula rasa which means ‘clean slate’ in Latin. The family teaches the child its language, customs and religious traditions, whose influence the child cannot escape.
For instance, Esposito and Voll (2001) define the Quran’s focus on democratic processes in terms of governing the people as a religious tradition: “In the Qur’an, the righteous are described as those people who, among other things, manage their affairs through “mutual consultation” or shura (42:38 Qur’an). Surely, this description of Islamic governance provides a dynamic view of the democratic conversations that must be expressed through “mutual consultation.” This description contradicts Fukuyama’s (2006) argument that the modernization of Islamic societies has led to radical governing policies that refute western democratic traditions. However, Islam may not replicate western secular societies in the democratic process, but it is clearly part of the Quran’s focus on democratic process. In this manner, Esposito and Voll (2001) denies the dominance of radical Islam as a singular policy in Islam, as there are many differing forms of democratic processes used in Islamic nations in the 21st century. More so, Esposito and Voll (2001) argue that many Islamic nations have a highly diverse and non-radical approach to governance that blends secular and religious forms of government: “Muslims who are not activist Islamists have participated in electoral processes and brought a growing sense of the need for morality and Islamic awareness in the political arena.” These findings provide a far more dynamic and flexible perception of Islamic politics than what is found in the primarily radical Islamic view that Fukuyama (2006) presents in modern governmental approaches in Islamic
Writers and poets could derive inspiration from this imagery, which was different from that of Europe, then plagued by political struggles. This fascination emanated from growing relations between East and West post the Crusades(1096-1271) when Crusaders came back with exciting tales from the remote places. This generated a discourse creating a popular imagination among the Westerners of what the Orient would be like. Owing to the Crusade, access to the middle-east had become relatively easier, hence, making it an exotic tourist destination for the West. Experiences of people made their way to literary works, often subject to hyperbole, establishing the foundations for what would become an ethnic divide between the Occident and the
In that period, the author must have gained better insights about the subjects of this book. If he had written it earlier, we would no doubt have had something different. Maybe it is not good as the latter. This book is an essential summary of author’s philosophical and sociological thought. On the surface, this book is an analysis of and holistic critique of the intellectual and political situation of the Muslim’s world during his time.
The growing investments of multinational corporations make it essential for these corporations to pursue a better understanding of Islamic values and mentalities, lest they endanger losing or repelling a significant part of their target market (Rogers, Ogbuehi, & Kochunny, 1995). As a consequence, it appears that Islamic Advertisement plays a role not only for Islamic societies, but also for western companies that target them. There is a threat of conflict especially in countries that already strictly enforce an Islamic code of conduct in all aspects of life, like in Saudi Arabia or Iran (Saeed, Ahmed, & Mukhtar, 2001). As an example Saudi Arabia has been known to alter advertisement campaigns that do not fulfill their moral expectations, like censoring female models who show body parts that should not be publicly visible (Edwards, 2012).