THE HITORICAL CONTEXT: It is important for us to note the time in which Ghazali was writing and how the historical factors worked together to shape his views on political philosophy. During this time the Islamic world, though still very powerful was undergoing fundamental changes. The
However, Sufis were dealing with this opposition problem for a long period, but Sufism has learned to be tolerant and deal with this problem. The two major persons who criticized the practice of Sufism were Ibn Taymiya and the Wahhabis. Ibn Taymiya was against some practices of Sufism, but he did have some Sufi backgrounds. The author explains also the impact of the modernity on Sufism such as the expedition of Napoleon to Egypt, and Frederick II of Sicily said clearly that they learned a lot from Muslims. I think that this book can be read by people who are interested to know about Sufism, such as Muslims or even persons from other religions who want to know more about Islam from a Sufism view.
He was open to innovation and influenced by the Western thoughts. He was living at a time of Ottoman Empire in which the Empire had lost its supremacy over the Europeans. At that time Katib Chelebi noticed the inadequacy of the traditional education of the Empire. His work; “The Balance of Truth”,Mizanü’l-Hakk fi ihtiyari’l-ahakk in Arabic, gives us significant informations about the religious, political, and cultural debates in the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century. “The Balance of Truth” was the Katib Chelebi’s last work which he completed in 1656.
The book also explores the ways though in which shamanism will need to be adapt and changed in order to do this. This includes examining the connections between ancient shamanism and modern psychotherapy, understanding the differences between them, but also by understanding what they can (and need to) learn from each
Staying at the Palace of the Alhambra, Irving was accompanied by the guide whose name was Mateo Ximenes. In the “Tales of the Alhambra” Washington Irving called him as a “son of the Alhambra” [2, p. 22]. Mateo being aware of the details about the historical truths, customs and traditions of the Alhambra and its inhabitants encouraged Irving to compose the unexampled work including a series of verbal sketches, stories and essays. The tales with the reflection of real historical truths are centralized in this book. The ruins reflect the traces of the periodical invasions of people with different faiths as well as the traces of natural calamity including
Gür Ağcı Ms. Amy 12 Advanced English 11 May 2015 YEARLY PROJECT Recep Tayyip Erdoğan: A Follower of The Prince One of the most notable philosophers of the Renaissance age, Machiavelli truly opened a new era in political philosophy. Up until then, philosophers such as Rousseau, Marx and Plato elaborated on the ideal instead of basing their ideas on real life events. Machiavelli objected his predecessors and defended: “There is such a gap between how one lives and how one should live that he who neglects what is being done for what should be done will learn his destruction rather than this preservation” (Machiavelli, 72). In this sense, Machiavelli introduced the term political realism. In his most established work The Prince, he outlined
In recent history the role of genre has undergone dramatic changes, once believed to be useful only to help categorise works into specific types based on their narrative or meaning, genres have too on a new role as they also help us to organize and define social actions (Bawarshi,17). It is the aim of this essay to examine just how this change affects the reception of Utopia by Thomas More and New Atlantis by Francis Bacon. This essay by close examination of these two narratives will examine how genre plays a role not only in the “constitution” of the texts and their contexts, “Including the identities of those who write them” and the characters that are represented within them. This essay will begin by first examining the role of genre in
EI tools: Non Violent Communication (NVC) and SCARF framework NVC I deemed the quote by Rumi — a 13th century Persian poet among other things — to be hitting the nail right on the head when it comes to describing what NVC is all about: “Out beyond the ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing, there is a field. I will meet you there”, he says. All too often we, as human beings, simply jump to conclusions for not knowing the true background. It is natural to judge but incorporating empathy can lead to better understanding, relationships, and overall outcomes; so we might as well make an effort to learn how to set preconceived judgments to the side and instead employ the 4 step process of NVC: “Observation, Feeling, Need, and Request” (p. 3). 1) Neutral observation is close to impossible, but let us own up, appreciate this inability of ours and go into the conversation by introducing our perceptions (e.g.
The law did more than just change the appearance of people; it also changed different aspects of society. Using a form of modernization theory provided by (Lerner / Tipps), this paper will evaluate the aspects of the nation building process in Turkey that were affected by the Hat Law of 1925. Using background information and research through journal articles, discussions regarding secularism, class structure, and westernization will be built in order to show the relationship and the effect of the Hat Law of 1925 on the nation building process in Turkey. II. Background a.
The introduction of Tocqueville in the Ottoman Empire by Ariel Salzmann is an application of the concepts that Tocqueville has developed such as Ancien Régime to understand the semblance between pre revolutionary France and the Ottoman old regime . Tocqueville questions why did France cohere and the Ottoman Empire fall apart if their policies and institutional patterns were similar in character and close in timing ? Hence Tocqueville haunts the social scientific imagination of the Ottoman past as he uses comparison study to make sense of political change and the regimes in transition now that the Ottoman Studies have begun to overcome their isolated methodological frame of reference. To do so Salzmann promotes circulating analytical concepts as well as seeks to construct interpretations derived from current state of Ottoman historiography while reexamining the paradoxes that obliterate the past and remain as obstacles to understand modern political paths. In my opinion the study which Salzmann presents focuses mainly on the fiscal governance and she could have included different functions of the old regime and the eruption of modernity .
Forey wrote, “This letter first appears in Brito’s Chronica de Cister, published in 1602: and it is generally accepted that this work is based partly on documents which are not genuine.” Forey cites numerous historical sources in an effort to prove that letter 308 is a forgery. He is extremely concerned about Bernard’s referencing of Pedro Henriques. In the letter, Bernard tells Afonso that Pedro is engaged in Lorraine. Yet Bernard expected that Pedro and others would soon arrive in Lisbon to rid Muslim factions from the peninsula. Forey, notes that
I find the role of religion in government quite interesting. In a previous lesson we learned about the Byzantine and Persian Empires and how they served as patrons for religious orthodoxies. Now as we start to discuss more about post-Muhammad Islam, we learn about the empires that served as the patrons for Islam. Religion seems to be the primary foundation for the rise and success for many of these empires, but in the 21st century religion does not serve this same purpose. The Safavid Empire was govern by and for Shiite Muslims, the Mughul Empire is quite distinct in that it seemed to be fueled by religious tolerance, so it was a hybrid of Islam and Hinduism, and the Ottoman Empire is also noteworthy as Robinson describes it as the “mightiest of the three”, most likely due
Historians approach history in various ways to catch their reader’s attention and make sure that their books are interesting at the same time. They tend to write histories based on concrete evidence from the past− ethnography, journals, and research. However, John Demos went beyond the normal stereotype. He approached history unconventionally by drawing hypothesis from certain historical evidence and connecting history to his subject rather than just speculating; he made it personal. In Unredeemed Captive, he made it clear that he wrote this historical novel based on research, also, journals and diaries left by the Williams family.
For example, Vesalius’s book De Humani Corporis Fabrica was written and published in 1543, therefore the primary source will include relevant and appropriate information form the time period. On the other hand, The History of Science from the Ancient Greeks to the Scientific Revolution by Ray Spangenburg and Diane K. Moser was published in 1993 therefore, it cannot have all the correct details from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The text can be biased because of the personal views of the author, and the time in which it was written could be influential because more accurate information can be discovered after the text is published. For instance, after William Harvey identified the parts and functions of the circulatory system, doctors and scientists developed new ideals based off of Harvey’s theories. Articles tend to be unreliable because journalists often give their impressions of the situation to please readers.