In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone. In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
There are two variants in HPLC based on the relative polarity of the solvent the normal and the stationery phase. In Normal phase, the column is filled with small silica particles and the solvent is non polar. The compound will run through the column where the non polar mixture will not stick to the silica and will pass the column faster than the polar compounds which will stick to the column. In reversed phase the column is the same size as the normal phase. The only difference from normal phase is that the column now is modified in order to attach long hydrocarbon to it surface.
12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
Since the particles are in an area of high concentration, there is a greater likelihood of more collisions occurring, resulting in the particles being propelled in the opposite direction, or towards the area of low concentration, eventually leading to a sense of equilibrium of the particles on each side of the gradient. This is the diffusion of the particles. The greater the difference in concentration, the faster diffusion will occur because there are more chances of collision, thus, more chances for the particles to diffuse down their concentration gradient. It is also worth noting that the speed of diffusion is greatly influenced by particle size and temperature. Simple diffusion is unassisted and it does not require energy.
The wax melted first, followed by the salt, and lastly the sugar. The salt not only burned before the sugar, but developed a brown color throughout most of the substance at a faster pace. In the water solubility test, the salt dissolved in the water, as soon as it was properly mixed and the sugar dissolved in the water as well, but was stirred for a longer period of time until it was completely dissolved. The wax did not dissolve in the water, however bits of the substance broke off from the main piece. With this information, the final results included: wax as a nonpolar covalent compound, since the substance melted first and was not soluble in water; salt as a polar covalent compound, since the substance was soluble in water and the second to melt; and sugar as an ionic compound because the substance melted last and was soluble in
The speed of movement of ions through the ion chromatograph columns depends not only on the diameter of the column but basically on the affinity of the ion to the specific resin or elute selected, the size of the interacting molecules and also the resultant distance between them based on the degree of attraction and repulsion. The ions with strong affinity for resin pass faster through the eluent as compared to the ions which have weaker affinity, which take more time to be
There are several factors affecting enzyme activity. These are temperature, pH, enzyme and substrate concentration, enzyme:substrate ratio, and surface area. Increasing the temperature increases the kinetic energy needed to kickstart the reaction. In a liquid substance, this means that there are more random collisions between the molecules. Because increasing the temperature speeds up the rate of reaction, more
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
Separation of Liquids by Fractional Distillation and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Methods and Background This lab was exceptionally knowledgeable and important in order to understand how certain compounds can be separated based on their boiling points (Landrie, 43). This experiment in particular focuses on understanding the separation of 1:1 mixture of acetone and 1 propanol using the method of fractional distillation (Landrie, 43). In the previous experiment, we focused on understanding the same separation but in terms of simple distillation. If compared with the data shown below with the data in the previous experiment, overall, the fractional distillation showed better and more effective results (Landrie, 43). This experiment also provided better
As such, that key neutralizing acid is inherent, so there's no compelling reason to incorporate an extra acidic fixing in the formula. Baking powder is accessible as single-acting preparing powder and as twofold acting preparing powder. Single-acting powders are enacted by dampness, so you must prepare formulas which incorporate this item instantly in the wake of blending. Twofold acting powders respond in two stages and can remain for some time before heating. With twofold acting powder, a few gases is discharged at room temperature when the powder is added to batter, yet most of the gas is discharged after the temperature of the mixture increments in the broiler.