In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
In Normal phase, the column is filled with small silica particles and the solvent is non polar. The compound will run through the column where the non polar mixture will not stick to the silica and will pass the column faster than the polar compounds which will stick to the column. In reversed phase the column is the same size as the normal phase. The only difference from normal phase is that the column now is modified in order to attach long hydrocarbon to it surface. When a polar solvent is used strong attractions between the polar solvent and polar molecules in mixture being passed through the silica.
The data table provided below obtained melting point data for crude product, pure product, and mixture of the pure and 4-tert-butylbenzyl. 12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
This is the diffusion of the particles. The greater the difference in concentration, the faster diffusion will occur because there are more chances of collision, thus, more chances for the particles to diffuse down their concentration gradient. It is also worth noting that the speed of diffusion is greatly influenced by particle size and temperature. Simple diffusion is unassisted and it does not require energy. This is when nonpolar and lipid soluble substances diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer without any help.
The wax melted first, followed by the salt, and lastly the sugar. The salt not only burned before the sugar, but developed a brown color throughout most of the substance at a faster pace. In the water solubility test, the salt dissolved in the water, as soon as it was properly mixed and the sugar dissolved in the water as well, but was stirred for a longer period of time until it was completely dissolved. The wax did not dissolve in the water, however bits of the substance broke off from the main piece. With this information, the final results included: wax as a nonpolar covalent compound, since the substance melted first and was not soluble in water; salt as a polar covalent compound, since the substance was soluble in water and the second to melt; and sugar as an ionic compound because the substance melted last and was soluble in
There are several factors affecting enzyme activity. These are temperature, pH, enzyme and substrate concentration, enzyme:substrate ratio, and surface area. Increasing the temperature increases the kinetic energy needed to kickstart the reaction. In a liquid substance, this means that there are more random collisions between the molecules. Because increasing the temperature speeds up the rate of reaction, more
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily.
Separation of Liquids by Fractional Distillation and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Methods and Background This lab was exceptionally knowledgeable and important in order to understand how certain compounds can be separated based on their boiling points (Landrie, 43). This experiment in particular focuses on understanding the separation of 1:1 mixture of acetone and 1 propanol using the method of fractional distillation (Landrie, 43). In the previous experiment, we focused on understanding the same separation but in terms of simple distillation. If compared with the data shown below with the data in the previous experiment, overall, the fractional distillation showed better and more effective results (Landrie, 43). This experiment also provided better
As such, that key neutralizing acid is inherent, so there's no compelling reason to incorporate an extra acidic fixing in the formula. Baking powder is accessible as single-acting preparing powder and as twofold acting preparing powder. Single-acting powders are enacted by dampness, so you must prepare formulas which incorporate this item instantly in the wake of blending. Twofold acting powders respond in two stages and can remain for some time before heating. With twofold acting powder, a few gases is discharged at room temperature when the powder is added to batter, yet most of the gas is discharged after the temperature of the mixture increments in the broiler.
Background Information In this lab KCl, NaCl, and a mixture of MgCl2 and NaCl are the independent variables that all lower the freezing point of water. Ice is used as the controlled variable because it is what the salts are lowering the freezing point of. Salt (Na) weakens intermolecular forces of water, thus lowering the the freezing point. This is why in colder climates where icy roads and walkways are a liability, salt is often scattered over areas that are slick with frozen water.