Williams (2004) cites the fact that women’s lack of progress in academia is well documented over the years as women continue to be treated differently than their male counterparts. According to American Association of University Professors (2010), there has been an increase of women who are tenured or on tenure-track in higher education over the years, yet, they are still underrepresented in many departments, colleges, and universities. Toren and Klaus (1987) examined the degree to which the numbers of women in a work related to the size of the workplace and found a direct relationship between equitability of treatment and smallness of workplace size. Women perceive the existence of inequality between men and
Equal Pay for Equal Work Over many years, women have been gradually given more rights such as owning property and voting, but one thing that has remained the same is that the females are not getting paid as much as men. It is important to close this pay gap because women are getting about 80% of what men are getting paid for the same work. Studies are also showing that women are charged more or have to spend more money than men. Equal pay is becoming more important as the minorities increase in the nation because the economy will suffer if a huge percentage of its workforce is getting paid 50-60 cents on the dollar. As more women are taking up the work force, it is important to pay them as much as the working men.
This source provides the information of “How was women’s social status”, and “How is Women’s social status.” This article contains the data of the percentage of women in the labor force, and the percentage of women in the labor force had a college degree by the 4 generations of American women. It shows the female workers was less than male and most of the women were not well-educated in the past. But currently, Women also begin to earn more master's degrees than men, a trend that continues today. Therefore, I can get the comparison to explain my topic. “Women Are Better Politicians than Men” Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Edited by Debra A. Miller, Greenhaven Press, 2013.
In the 1970s, the wage gap decreased because “women’s progress in education and workforce participation” (Miller, 2018). However currently there is still a wage gap: for every dollar a man makes a woman makes eighty cents for same job – on average. What is being seen recently is that intersectionality plays a vital role in the wage gap as well; not only are women being paid less than men, but some races of women are being paid less than others. It was discovered that “among full-time workers in 2016, Hispanic or Latina, black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHPI) women had lower median annual earnings compared with non-Hispanic white and Asian women” (Miller, 2018). It was also revealed that Asian women have the smallest wage gap when compared to men and that Hispanic women have the largest wage gap when compared to men.
According to Kathleen Cullum, MSN, CRNP, “most organizations are now requiring that nurses have their RN license and many are requiring a bachelor’s degree in nursing (BSN).” The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics says “ only 17 percent of LPN’s are working in hospitals.” Additionally, it will cost you about double to stay in school and become an RN instead of an LPN. However this price is nothing compared to the difference in LPN vs RN pay. According to the U.S. department of Labor an RN will earn around 25,000 more annually than an LPN. Some will argue that the LPN route is the better path because it only takes 12 - 18 months to obtain your diploma compared to the 24-36 months it takes to become an RN. In addition, the BLS says, LPN jobs are expected to grow by 16 percent through 2024.
Here, Kolhatkar tells of a young woman working in a corporate company looking to climb up the ladder of the business. However, we find that she doesn't receive the same employment and promotional opportunities as many of her male peers, many of whom, she appears to be superior to. She argues this viewpoint once again, when she says, “One former Tesla employee told me that women made up less than ten percent of her working group; at one point, there were actually more men named Matt in the group than there were women” (Kolhatkar). In this quoted text we can infer that women are not given as many opportunities as men within the workplace. Kolhatkar further argues that this could be because when women do attempt to achieve these positions they are often not taken seriously.
One can discern that discrimination in the workplace does not cause the gender wage gap, but the choices women make, such as working less hours (Jarosek). For instance, both male and female pharmacists make approximately the same wage per hour; however, women work fewer hours than men, hence the extensive gap regarding their wages (Devani). If an individual works more hours and possibly overtime, this implies that their income per hour would increase, resulting in a larger income compared to others that work less hours. Although, this “choice” many argue women make simply does not explain why women that work the same amount of hours as men with the same educational level get paid significantly
Moreover, in 1928, the women brought home 2 gold medals, 1 silver medal, and 1 bronze medal. This showed how women were capable to work in any profession even if it was more “manly”. On the contrary the 1930s, due to the Great Depression, decreased jobs, and there was no place for women in the workforce. In addition, the 1920s were the years for bringing equality between men and women whereas the 1930 's brought men back to the top. Women that managed to keep their job but were paid lower than men even if they had been working longer and had a higher position.
In an interview with Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg, she states that there “female senior managers [ a high professional and management jobs] are paid less than male senior managers it’s that there are fewer female senior managers than male.” she also states that “this hugely skews those average figures like the 77 cents per dollar that are bandied about (Perry).” Sandberg tries to prove with this fact that the reason that there 's a pay difference is due to the fact that there are not enough females holding high enough positions to reinforce the pay gap. Within Mark Perry’s article, he believes that there is no gender wage gap, rather a gender earnings gap. Perry provides twenty different gender gaps that reflects gender difference in the market, his examples help prove why gaps are generally favored towards men. This helps him explain why men earn higher incomes on average than women. These facts make you think about how some men put their lives at risk by working in the cold or working with life threatening things.
3). Furthermore, “in 2009 there were only marginally more female ‘computer programmers’ than in 1972 (20.3 percent now compared to 19.9 percent then),” however, “ after an initial increase in women’s share of the occupation to more than one-third of programmers in the late 1980s, their share has fallen consistently since 1989” (Hegewisch et al., 2010, p. 3). A sad conclusion of the report is that “occupational gender segregation for young women, aged 25 – 34 years, is now stronger than it was at the beginning of this millennium” (Hegewisch et al., 2010, p. 13). Blau, Brummund, and Yung-Hsu Liu (2013) confirmed these findings through their survey that showed trends in occupational segregation. Findings suggested that by 2000, the pace of decrease in sex segregation
In his essay “John J. Macionis” which appear as The Twenty-First-Century Campus: Where is the Men? And this article show how the women have great social equality after long time of being not accepted in college. He describe who the women were not welcome in all the colleges or universities in United States in one century ago. Few years ago the number of women who go to college has increase until they finally matched the men. Moreover, the low income make more women go to college then men, and that because they able to find a jobs without needing for college degree.