Children at risk of dying every year due to zinc deficiency are about 450,000. Mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency may be relatively common worldwide, but the public health importance of this degree of zinc deficiency is not well defined. Zinc deficiency leaves the body incapable of fighting pneumonia and diarrhea. Child hood diarrhea especially is a key public health issue in many developing countries. Diarrhea claims the lives of approximately1.5 million children under the age of five every year– nearly one in five child deaths.
Infant mortality is a key indicator of health of both the mother and infant.3 This article went on to state that Infants born to non-Hispanic black mothers are twice as likely to die before their first birthday than those born to non-Hispanic white mothers. Similarly, infants born to black mothers are three times more likely to die of preterm related issues.3 Clayton County, Georgia is located south of Atlanta, and it is surrounded by four counties that ranked between 1-40 in health outcomes and health factors.4 It is a relatively small county with approximately 144 square miles and a population of n=267,542;4 yet, Clayton County continues to grapple with a myriad of health disparities in spite of several aggressive interventions. Among the leading causes of health disparities in Clayton County, maternal and child health disparities continue to be an issue, especially among black non-Hispanic
Breast feeding and recurrent pneumonia In developing countries, the incidence and mortality rate of childhood pneumonia are 10 times higher than in developed countries.  Malnutrition is thought to be the underlying cause of approximately half of the fatal acute lower respiratory tract infections. Nutritional determinants of the global acute lower respiratory infection disease burden in children less than 5 years old is a lack of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months. [6,7] Hence in our study we will investigate if there’s any relevant correlation between breast feeding in patients with recurrent
Medicaid relates to critical race theory in how many low income individuals are able to access health care nationwide. According to PBS News Hour (2015), “ In California, 3 million more people than expected have enrolled in Medicaid, but that success has exacerbated longstanding shortages of some kinds of care” (para. 1). This directly relates to social work practice in that I could have client’s that will be affected with the changes. People could have a hard time trying to find providers in their areas for their specialty needs, that will also take Medicaid as payment.
Using the multivariate logistic regression synthesis, it is clear that demographic and social predictors are behind disparities in seeking the services across the vast nation. The CDC abortion surveillance reports that in 2013, a total of 664,435 legal practiced abortions were recorded from their 49 reporting centers. The rate for the same year was 12.5 per 1000 women with the ages 15-44 years while the abortion rate at 200:1000 live births. The black women are 3.75 times more likely to terminate their pregnancy than their white counterparts. About 90% of the abortions occur in the first trimester.
11, 12 How¬ever, Post-natal depression (PND) is diagnosed in only 50% of the women with prominent symptoms during first year after delivery. On the contrary, untreated PND can cause chronic depression and interferes in mother child bonding and even to the extent of suicide as well as infanticide in rare cases.13 However, it is important to distinguish PND from the “baby blues” that occurs be¬tween three and 10 days after giving birth; and “Post¬natal psychosis” which affects one in 500 women in the first week or so after child birth.4 The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the burden of postpartum depression in a group of Indian women attending a tertiary care teaching hospital using EPDS
While a prevalence of 10 per cent LBW babies has been reported for the privileged high socio-economic class, nearly 56 per cent birth were classified as LBW for the poor urban slum community347. In a study conducted in slums of Kolkata, prevalence of LBW was reported as 28.6 per cent348. In Trivandrum out of 3835 singleton newborns studied for anthropometric indices at birth, 15 per cent were low-birth weight. Mean birth weight increased with increases in maternal socioeconomic status 349. CAUSES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT Although pre-term deliveries and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) are the usual causes of small-for-age infants, individual size differences among newborns who are neither growth-retarded nor preterm have also been
As a response, American schools had received funding under then Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act to prevent youth violence. Accordingly, violence prevention programs and mental health services for children have risen substantially, as well as the number of attending patients. As a result, the Bureau of Justice Statistics School Safety Report shows that victimization of minors in America has been steadily decreasing, albeit it has spiked recently. According to the report, the total victimization rate inside school declined 82 percent between 1992 and 2014, from 181 victimizations per 1000 students in 1992 to 33 victimizations per 1000 students in 2014. In 1992-1993, there were around 4.2 million victimizations but only 1.2 million in 2010-2011.
(Hampers et al., 1999). Furthermore, premature death imposes significant costs on society in the form of lower wages, lost tax revenues, additional services and benefits for families of the deceased and lower quality of life for survivors. Laveist et al. (2011) found that between 2003 and 2006 the combined direct and indirect cost of health inequalities in the United States was $1.24 trillion (in 2008 inflation-adjusted dollars) and this equates to $309.3 billion
Abuse of and addiction to alcohol, nicotine, and illegal and prescription drugs cost more than $700 billion a year in increased health care costs, crime, and lost productivity. 1,2,3 Every year, illegal and prescription drugs and alcohol contribute to the death of more than 90,000 westerners, while nicotine is related to an estimated 480,000 deaths per year. People of all ages know the dreadful consequences of drug abuse and addiction. 1)Babies: exposed to drugs in the womb may be born premature and underweight. This exposure can reduce the child’s mental development and influence his behavior later in life.
Postpartum depression (PPD), interferes with daily living and can take a substantial toll on the physical and mental health of mother and child. An estimated 10-15% of young mothers reported feeling depressed within a year of giving birth and these women were likely less than high school educated, non-Hispanic black, unmarried, and covered by Medicaid for the delivery (Collins, Lin, and Garikapaty, 2011). Low-income women enrolled in state Medicaid programs may be at increased risk for developing postpartum depression, which can occur up to a year after giving birth ( Kozhimannil, Adams, Soumerai, Busch, & Huskamp, 2011). Wisner, Sit, McShea, Rizzo, Zoretich,… Hanusa (2013) suggests that many low income expectant mothers in the United States