In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics [12-14]. However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening.
Kneading Technique: In this technique Cyclodextrin is initially taken in mortar then drug is gradually further into it and using small percentage of water it is triturated using pestle to get a paste like uniformity. The over head paste is kneaded for enough time then this mixture is dried and is passed through appropriate sieve. 1.4.3. Co-precipitation technique: The Cyclodextrin and the drug are additional to water or alcohol and a saturated solution is shaped at 40-600C and after that it is cooled to precipitate the complex and it is clarified or centrifuged. 1.4.4.
CH3 175 83.06% 287-289ºC 4. -OCH3 191 86.03% 275-277ºC 5. 204 78.78% 295ºC Step-3 Synthesis of 2-Methyl benzoxazin -4(3H)-one53 (4) Anthranilic acid (0.1M, 18g) was taken in acetic anhydride and refluxed under anhydrous conditions for 4 hrs. Excess of acetic anhydride was then distilled off under reduced pressure. Obtained product was immediately used for next step.
The anthraquinone dye experiment has the purpose to identify the anthraquinone dyes from unknown mixture by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the unknown fraction. An anthraquinone is an aromatic organic compound obtained by the oxidation of anthracene. To separate the compounds in the mixture, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography uses portioning of a sample between a stationary solid phase and a liquid mobile phase. As the stationary phase, they use either silica gel or alumina, and organic solvents as the mobile phase. In order to accomplish the experiment, an unknown which is a solution of at least two anthraquinone dyes will be used.
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
This experiment aims to separate the components of the green colored food dye and get the TLC profile of each eluent collected. III. Experimental Procedure Before starting with the column chromatography for food dye, the right solvent must be chosen between 2-butanol with acetic acid, ammonia in butanol, 1 part 1-butanol 1 part acetic acid, and 2 parts methanol 1 part water. In choosing the appropriate solvent for column chromatography, the solvent system must give a TLC profile wherein most of the spots are well separated and has a Rf value within 0.3-0.5. For TLC profiling, 4 TLC plates were prepared for the testing of each solvent.
It may limit the application of the PS cyclization as a chemical ligation method for peptides with N-terminal aromatic residue and peptides with aldehyde residue at C-terminal(40). 7. Pictet-spengler reaction for protein chemical modification= proteins are having aldehyde and ketone groups in their structures. So proteins are taken as a substrate and the pictet-spengler reaction is performed for making modification in the chemical nature of the proteins. P. agarwal and co-workers work for protein chemical modification by conducting a pictet-spengler reaction between aldehydes and alkoxyamines.
Name :SiphesihleGamede Student number : 213571124 Experiment : #10 Date : 4 March 2015 Experiment Name : High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Quantification of caffeine in various drinks Aim The aim of this experiment was to ascertain the concentration levels of caffeine in cola soft drink samples such as coke, monster and red bull by utilising the internal standard method using HPLC. The experiment was also aimed at investigating the use of solid phase extraction for sample clean-up. Figure 1.1 shows a skematic diagram of an HPLC system. Figure 1.2 shows a skematic diagram of a solid phase extraction system. Introductory Questions Define SPE and explain the role of each of the steps used to prepare the SPE cartridge for the isolation of the analyte.
Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to identify the composition of over-the-counter analgesics by the method of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is used for rapid qualitative analysis of mixtures to determine and identify its components and purity. A development solvent was used to separate the analgesics found in both the known drug sample and an unknown sample of over-the-counter medications. The pertinent techniques for this experiment are spotting the stationary phase with the samples, placement of stationary sample in mobile phase chamber for development, observation under a UV light, and further development in iodine chamber. Experimental Scheme Figure 1 Figure 2 Anacin Salicylamide Procedure 12 micropipettes were prepared in lab by heating the middle of capillary tubes over a flame.
Silica which is soluble in about 2 to 3N hydrochloric acid can be taken as reactive silica. The acid-soluble silica can easily and accurately be determined by plasma emission spectrometry using a very small quantity of fly ash (Sivapullaiahet al. 1998). 3.3. Soil – Lime Reactions The addition of lime to a soil initiates a two stage reaction.