Summary Of Beyond Smoke And Mirrors

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was an animal.” (Ryan, P.g 2) With Compadrazgo it is assumed that if Marcos’s father had been related to his boss these cruel actions would never that taken place. In a country where family ties dominate education and experience, there 's no room for advancement thus giving the residences who fall victim only one option. Leave.
The second belief system supported by “First Crossing” is Encomienda; the belief that it was destined by God that there would always be a poor population in the world. This belief makes it incredibly difficult for people in Mexico to raise above the social class they were born in. Marco’s family was relatively poor mainly do to the fact that his father was only paid five dollars for a nine hours work day. After many years with no financial relief Marco’s father finally makes the journey to America (Ryan). Beyond Smoke and Mirrors, a 2002 book written by Jorge Durand, Nolan J. Malone, and Douglas S.Massey --explaining reasons behind Mexican Immigration-- states that, “Simply by crossing a line, he or she [mexican immigrants] would not only earn more income but gain access to better schooling, a richer infrastructure, improved social services, superior medical care, and a fuller array of consumer alternatives.” This statement directly connects with Marcos experiences in the “First Crossing”. After Marcos father starts crossing the border their family’s economic status improves. They even soon have enough money to move in to a better home. All of this
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