In this response paper I continue with my goal of problematizing mainstream concepts in gender theory using ideas generated from transgender studies and my own lived experience as a Filipino transsexual woman. Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble, considered to be one of queer theory’s foundational texts, expounds on the notion of gender performativity that describes gender’s ‘truth’ or ‘naturalness’ as a result of repeated reiterations of (highly mediated) permitted acts while repressing contradictory ones. In the chapter “Prohibition, Psychoanalysis, and the Production of the Heterosexual Matrix,” Butler historicizes patriarchy and the transformation of sex into gender and extends the finding of gender’s artificiality to critique the normative ‘heterosexual matrix’ that imposes rigid social rules to follow in order for on to have a valid ‘identity’. She demonstrates the mechanisms that enforce these ‘coherent’ gender identities by mentioning Lévi-Strauss’ structuralism and the exchange of women as a form of kinship (pp. 47-55); Joan Riviere’s ‘womanliness as masquerade’ (pp.
In Judith Butler’s essay,” Beside Oneself: On the Limits of Sexual Autonomy,” she attempts to clarify what is considered human and what defines a human, and how it applies to the different gender roles and human rights. The difficulty that this essay presents, however, is its ambiguity – the fact that she fails to clearly identify what a human is and sort of challenges the readers to look within themselves to search for their own interpretation of what they believe gives them their own moral rights and human integrity. Human integrity is a word that can easily be defined when searched for in any dictionary database. “LawCookies.com” defines it as, “the human right to live without being physically harmed or harassed by others. No one can touch,
Comparing Boys and Girls and Emma Watson’s speech for her HeForShe campaign Gender is not referred “to sex, but to this set of prescribed behavior,” as said by Marlene Goldman’s “Penning in the Bodies” (Goldman). There are many rules set upon an individual as to what is acceptable and what is not. The short story Boys and Girls by Alice Munro focuses on the implications the narrator had to endure on her journey to womanhood by reason of gender stereotypes. Emma Watson’s speech for the HeForShe campaign targets on abolishing gender inequality. Despite inequity, there is a myriad of comparable traits that are shared by humans which portrays our personality.
The Rhetoric of “We All Should Be Feminists” Novelist, Chimamanda Adichie lectured an audience on why we all should be feminists. Feminists are people who believe in the social, political, and economical equality of the sexes. Adichie describes a couple of times when she was called or implied herself to be a feminist. Adichie’s focus in the lecture was feminists but her main focus was feminists in Nigeria because that is what and where she knows. Some key points she made were that we should raise our children differently and that gender matters.
“This shows the comparison between identity and language even through grammar. In the text Baron says “The persons at facebook are enlightened enough to acknowledge gender as fluid, but when it comes to grammar their thinking identifies into masculine, feminine, and neuter”. This quote corresponds to my thesis because this certain language is seen as less than identity and both should equally correlate to each other. Dennis Baron's essay reflects on gender being uplifted, in contrast to grammar certain minds are unable to bend. Gender is looked at in many ways from male and female to Non-binary and pangender.
The bathroom bill, which promotes the idea that schools need to provide trans students with bathrooms and locker rooms that match their gender identity instead of their birth sex, is a very controversial topic, and with that comes some very different opinions. Mine, in fact, is rather complicated because I don’t understand what daily life is like for trans students. But before I state my opinion and back it up with psychological research I would like to break down the whole idea of transgender within the bill and how that relates to a scientific perspective. Okay, so in the proposed bill “gender identity” is defined as “an individual’s deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex that the individual was born with.” Therefore it comes down to the fact that a person does not agree with their chromosomal configuration. These people usually state that they feel like they are a woman trapped in a man’s body or vise versa.
According to Bromley, postmodernists “use deconstruction to expose the power and politics embedded in metanarratives, uncovering seemingly transcendent truths as socially constructed” (Bromley, 2012, Pg. 93). As I stated before, postmodernists believe that gender and sexuality are not based on biology, but rather performances. One of the biggest influences of postmodern feminism was Judith Butler. Butler, in addition to other several other postmodern feminists, believed that performances come before the gender/and or
In The Handmaid’s Tale, Margaret Atwood allows and almost disturbs the readers to question if they are truly satisfied with their lives and the society they are living in, and conveys to the readers that our society needs change and improvement. People nowadays believe that gender equality is necessary since the topic is so often discussed. The fact that people believe in this shows how much progress our world has made. However, it is so easy for us to forget the real reason behind this general statement; Why do we truly need gender equality? This question is the background to Atwood’s main message and her opinion on women’s oppression.
"There are female infants and children who cannot be impregnated, there are older women who cannot be impregnated.... What the question does is try to make the problematic of reproduction central to the sexing of the body. But I am not sure that is, or ought to be, what is absolutely salient or primary in the sexing of the body." (Butler, quoted in Osborne & Segal, 1994) Thus her contention that women cannot be a unified homogeneous group is justified, as they share so much of diversity: "The very subject of women is no longer understood in stable or abiding terms." Thus, we have to look for a new way to identify and define gender: "The consequence of such sharp disagreements about the meaning of gender.... establishes the need for a radical re-thinking of the categories of identity within the context of relations of radical gender
Kara primarily focuses on sex trafficking, and shows how the term leads to confusions since policy makers only take into account “movement” and not “exploitation” (p.4). She explicitly agrees with the fact that “trafficking is not about movement it’s about slavery” (p.4) but she however fails to acknowledge how some girls in this situation gave their consent, knowing the implications, to make ends meet. To fill in this gap, M. G. Grant wrote an interesting book about “the work of sex work” and her analysis complete S. Kara’s, offering another viewpoint on how women get influenced and are “stuck” in their positions not knowing that they could actually be rescued, motivated by the same outcomes echoed in K. Bales analysis: fear and
A common belief of many people throughout the world, specifically America, is that a woman is only a woman if she can bear children. As exemplified by Trans Justice in the following excerpt, “transphobic violence is justified using medical theories and religious beliefs, and is perpetuated in order to preserve US heterosexist values” (TransJustice 228) The theory that only persons who are biologically female can be a woman is a violence against trans women, which is perpetuated daily within the American societal norm of the gender