Summary of "Learning to Read" by Malcolm X In his essay "Learning to Read" from the chapter "Saved" in Malcolm's Autobiography published in New York (Grove Press, 1965). Malcolm was born in Omaha, Nebraska and his father was a political activist on behalf of Marcus Garvey. After he and his family moved to East Lansing, Michigan, where his father was killed and his mother placed in a mental institution. he became an orphan and ended up on the streets of Detroit where he was known as "Detroit Red". Furthermore, Malcolm x was sent to jail where he was motivated to begin his homemade education by struggling to communicate with Elijah Muhammad and envying Bambi for his competence to assume control of the conversation and his stock of knowledge.
Malcolm X had a vigorous early life and through the help of the Islamic religion he was able to live a life of wisdom and knowledge. Malcolm was living a mis-guided life in boston and consequently he was dealt a 10 year prison sentence. When in prison Malcolm X was influenced to convert to the nation of Islam by his family. The Nation of Islam gave him a new outlook at life and motivated him to become educated. Before Malcolm X started his studies underneath the religion he was a naive and self centered person but shortly after his conversion his demeanor changed drastically.
Malcolm X's "Literacy Behind Bars" is about the expansion of his world that provokes a burning passion within himself through the world of reading. While incarcerated, the author meets a man named Bimbi who leads the discussion with his stock of knowledge, prompting Malcolm X to further his skills in literacy. Taking small steps, he first broadens his vocabulary by reading alphabetically in the dictionary and copying pages. He reads aloud to himself until the words begin to stick with him. Not long after moves onto books, devouring them at a relentless pace, Malcolm X became so engrossed with reading that he begins breaking curfew rules just to continue reading by using the light outside of his cell.
In Malcom X's speech he wants to encourage African Americans to stand up for themselves and he is also stating action needs to be taken. Malcom X claims'' Instead of airing our differences in public we need to realize we are all the same family''( Malcom x 69-70). In this section of his speech Malcom X uses pathos in an effort to open peoples eyes. He does this to try and unite African Americans and to show them who the real enemy is. Malcom X also uses Logos to help make his argument stronger.
Learning to Read was written in 1845 and it is a narrative. This narrative gives us insight into how difficult or impossible it was for people of color to learn how to read and write. Malcolm X is famous for his autobiography called The Autobiography of Malcolm X and specifically the passage about learning to read in the memoir. The intended audience is colored people and in general the public. The autobiography was written in 1965.
Malcolm X went through many fundamental changes throughout his life. Names played a crucial role in the evolution of his personality. From marriage to people in the Bible to famous musicians, the changing of one’s name signifies a new identity. Each of Malcolm’s names represented one personality that made him who he was. Though Malcolm was labelled many things, I feel three represent his change the best-- Malcolm Little, Red, and Malcolm X.
He learned how to recognize evil. At the very last stage of his life, Malcolm was marked for death and the conflict became personal. The word on the street was that Malcolm X was a dead man, everybody knew that, even him. Malcolm knew he’d never die a natural way, with the way he lived his life he was bound for death. Malcolm received numerous death threats, not only from white supremacists, but from his former organization, the Nation of Islam.
He applies to the emotion of his audience, rousing them to anger, at the same time strikes fear into the hearts of his white listeners. Malcolm X emphasizes specific words to make the audience feel that the government has failed. He also uses unfortunate facts to produce a sense of urgency from his audience for example, “ You have 22 million Afro-American who choices are being bound, whose little girls are being murdered, who leader are being shot down in broad daylight.” Malcolm X uses ethos in his speech by introducing himself and he builds credibility by comparing himself to other activists such as, Adam Clayton Powell and Dr. Martin Luther King, who was also a minister and political leaders during the civil rights movement. He related to the audience “we all have the same problem. They don’t hang you because you’re a Baptist; They hang you ‘cause you’re black.
Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X greatly influenced by their strong individual faiths. There ideologies had important role development and practice of the ideologies. Martin Luther King Jr. embrace the beliefs of Christianity and become a minister at a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Malcolm X after six years in prison was released where he joined the Nation of Islam (Carson, 13-14). This where his belief of racial separation, the inherent evil of whites, and the need to embrace African culture(Cone, 179).
Malcolm X and Gandhi had attracted a large and devote amount of followers, and made a lasting impact not only on their time but on ours. Their methods of persuasion and arguments against the injustice were factors in being leaders of their individual but related causes. Malcolm X was born as Malcolm Little on May 19th, 1925 in Omaha Nebraska, he was four of eight children of Louise and Earl Little. His mother was a homemaker and his father was a preacher who was involved in the Universal Negro Improvement Association and supported black nationalism. From a young age Malcolm had encounters with racism, the ku klux klan and the black legion terrorized his family, even before he was born.