This chapter sheds light on the theory of ecological criticism as a literary critical theory, its beginnings, development, and characteristics. Moreover, this chapter discusses the basic assumptions upon which ecocriticism is based. In addition, it surveys how the concept of ecocriticism can be interweaved with other disciplines. It also brings to foreground the relationship between ecocriticism and spirituality. Furthermore, in the light of this chapter we examine and comprehend the Sufi understanding of nature and interaction with environment.
In this society, the equality which stands between men and women is almost non- existent. It is widely believed that we live in a man’s world. Even something as common to our culture as the English language stands guilty to the possession of a rape content. With the “language of rape” surrounding our everyday lives and yet still being ignored as an issue seeking attention, it is common for many people to overlook the equally degrading images in which advertising agencies surround us with day in and day out. “Advertising contributes to people’s attitudes about gender, sex, and violence,” states Jean Kilbourne in her article, Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt With advertising agencies standing by the notion that “Sex Sells” it isn’t uncommon to find sex tied into a number of advertisements seen everywhere on a daily basis.
Some of the guys grinned at the front of it; in spite of its being smaller and tighter and more starched than her old uniforms, it could no longer hide the fact that she was a woman” (Kesey 320). Being attacked led to the men realizing that she was indeed a woman and not a machine. When her breasts were exposed, she compromised her previous image of masculinity and therefore lost power over the men on the ward. Traditional gender expectations are supported by the implication that Nurse Ratched power over the men because her feminine traits were
This is not just symptomatic of sexualy violence or exploitation due to the third sex identity but also an attmept to catogorise onself into an complete sexual identity. Anarkhali’s alternation of sexual behavioural patterns by gratifying the men in the police station is also a rebellious attempt to claim her predominant feminine idenitiy, as suggested in her name. However ironically Anarkhali in her attempt to claim and identity tries to catogorise herself as the feminine. This act of neutralising the queer idenity further complicates the process of defining the
According to Plumwood, “Ecological feminism is essentially a response to a set of key problems thrown up by the two great social currents of the later part of this century feminism and the environment movement and addresses a number of shared problems” (P-10).The researcher will focus on Val Plumwood’s book, Feminism and the Mastery of Nature in which she explains the association between humanity and environment concerning to an eco-feminist ideology. The book shows how the feminist critical analysis of dominant forms of rationality can be comprehensive to incorporate theories of gender, race and class oppression with that of the domination of nature. Val Plumwood sheds light on the affiliation between women and Nature, and the link between ecological feminism and other feminist ideologies. She equates ecofeminism with the third wave of feminism: “It is not a tsunami, a freak tidal wave which has appeared out of nowhere sweeping all before it. Rather, it is prefigured in and builds on work not only in ecofeminism but in radical feminism, cultural feminism and socialist feminism over the last decade and a half.” (39) Plumwood points out that ecofeminism is different from other feminisms in its insistence on “by making an account of the connection to nature central” (39) In her model, domination is not restricted to white western males but expands to include the concept of a “multiple, complex cultural identity of the master formed in the context of class, race species and gender domination” (5).
DEFINITION In the field of sociology, positivism is a view that social phenomena such as human behaviour and how society is structured are studied by the methods of natural sciences only. So, positivism is view of appropriate methodology of social science focussing on empirical observation. Positivism is a concept which tells that only scientific knowledge is the true knowledge of the world is perceived through senses. It is a observation based phenomenon. MEANING AND INTRODUCTION OF POSITIVISM Positivism is a philosophical approach of understanding and conducting research remains has a major influence in the natural sciences, including biology and is the mainstay of research conducted in the fields of medicines and health.
The first method involves utilizing the perspectives of the various actors in the policy-making process in the policy analysis. Subsequently, an interactive and interpretive analysis methodology such as the participatory and critical theory analysis process would be selected. Equally, the policy analysis about environmental policy typically draws from scientific models of topics that range from air pollution transport to wildlife-forage relationships. For instance, a cost-benefit analysis of protecting endangered species through habitat protection should include a method of estimating the relationship between habitat protection and the endangered species. Consequently, environmental policy analysis would incorporate the ability to understand and work with either researchers or the results of research from a range of different disciplines.
However, as a result of the various definitions and concepts of ecotourism as discussed above, in this study, the definition of ecotourism will adopt the definition suggested by IUCN and accepted by MOCAT. This definition is “environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature, that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact and provides the beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations”. Another definition from the IUCN stated that ecotourism is a form of tourism that is focused on the discovery of cultural and natural heritage and committed to
CHAPTER 1 Testing Your Comprehension 3. What is environmental science? Name several disciplines that environmental science draws upon A. Environmental science is the study of how the earth’s natural systems operate. This study also outlines how humans affect these systems and how these affect humans.