His writing has been exploring of the painful psychological impact of colonial cultural decline. Comrade Mzala rightly opines that “Art is an important weapon in the struggle; it either reinforces or undermines the power of the oppressor”. Through the novel Petals of Blood and Matigari we see Ngugi writing as a strong social satire. Both novels portray the life after colonial era but the common thing is the same situation and problem faced by natives during colonialism. Ngugi works are characterized by criticism against European unacceptable law and injustice.
The impact of horrible experiences and situations made him disappointed. Unknowingly he starts hating America. He gets unconscious smile at the time of WTO attack. Mohsin shows that Pakistanis and Asians after 9/11 were subjected to a similar humiliation and even worse. Changes discriminates at the Manila airport based on his racial and cultural home.
The disintegration of nation states after the First World War which were governed by law and cultural ties was now taken over by issues of race and religion. Arendt writes that the presence of fear mixed with hatred stimulates followers of particular ideologies, thus it leads to hostility towards the outsiders of the ideology on the basis of
Another explanation of the violence is blamed on the ANC government’s service delivery bad record, what Apartheid didn’t damage, the ANC did. South African xenophobia has also been explained by the level of social and economic inequality in the country. It has been noted that the greatest punishments of xenophobic violence have been carried out in borders of formal society, where foreign nationals compete with the poorest South Africans to make themselves a basic living. And then
“The colonial situation manufactures colonialists, just as it manufactures the colonised” (Memmi 1974:56-57). Anglo-Indians, the ‘experienced’ colonists, force their own stereotypes of the natives upon newcomers. The colonisers arrive fresh from England “intending to be gentlemen, and are told it will not do.” Hence, “[t]hey all become exactly the same – not worse, not better” (p.34). Ronny Heaslop complains that “[p]eople are so odd out here, and it’s not like home – one’s always facing the footlights …. They notice everything, until they’re perfectly sure you’re their sort” (p.68, my italics).
Said 's concept of orientalism and Van Dijk 's ideological square was used in its analysis. The film makes a distinction between the Orient and the Occident by portraying the East as primitive, backward and communal and the West as individualistic, modern and emancipated. The results showed that the same oriental stereotypes used for Arabs are usually used for Iranians. Iranians are depicted in the most negative way as uncultured, uncivilized and barbaric. Women are considered as subordinate to men in this society while they are deprived of any basic human rights.
In this novel, Hamid depicts how American Superiority nature spoils the culture and relation of America and Pakistan. Even after independence, Pakistanis are still living in the shadows of American colonialism, which has major impact upon people, their cultural and identities. He uses individual as symbols for their respective national culture and identity. The edgy relationship between Changes and Erica represents the complex and complicated equation that exists between Pakistan and America. Changes changes his physical appearance to impress Erica, as she likes only Americans.
Moreover, the role of the mask is signified as a false interceptor of perception and translator of emotion. Similarly, the notion of the mask’s motive is demonstrated through the continued implementation of personification, in order to clarify the mask’s identity as an abstract entity, in the sentence, “It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,”. The mask is also depicted as an entity forced upon a specific populace as a form of humiliation, as exemplified through Dunbar’s use of words like “debt” and “human guile” being operated in conjunction. These words communicate the believe that selfish intelligence is responsible for the creation of a “debt” or contract, which binds the community into unpleasant situation they are unsatisfied with. Dunbar also incorporates a cynical tone through the application of negatively connotated words such as, “lies”, “hides”, “shades”, “debt”, “guile”, “torn” and “bleeding”, that represent a disagreeable side of our species.
That would be best. Like a man without a name. Or, to be more precise, a man whose name has been stolen.” (1.2.191-193) reinforces Cesaire’s post-colonial perspective and his endorsement of negritude. Caliban finds himself continuously ill-treated; he has it the worst of all of Prospero’s slaves. The conditions of hard-labour that were subjected to black people by white supercilious people during colonization are mentioned by Cesaire were Prospero “forgives” Ferdinand and excuses him from his afore imposed state of slavery on the basis that they are of the same race and rank and the manual labour that was intended for Ferdinand is passed on to Caliban.
Questions like what is relationship between nationalism and nation? What are the origins of nationalism? One of the most profound things about nationalism is sometimes it comes up as a good force for betterment of humanity and at some other points it works for the greatest evils. At this particular time, we are more likely to think mostly about the evils it brings in, mostly because this association is the result of harm it has caused on human society from past two centuries, undoubtedly, far more than good deeds of it. Nationalism is mostly tend to be associated with atrocity.