In Henry L. Minton’s Gay and Lesbian Studies, he presented some of the possible ways that homosexuality could be defined as from different opposing angles. From the psychobiological perspective, “homosexuality = sexual behavior with a member of the organism’s own sex” (Denniston). While some viewed the term as more than just a behavior, but a lifestyle; “I have always been bothered by the definition of homosexuality as a behavior. Scratching is a behavior. Homosexuality is a way of being, one that can completely influence a person’s life and shape its meaning and direction” (Grahn).
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However, with the recent development of Queer Theory, the body and the complex relationship between sex and gender began to progressively receive special attention. In this context, the notion of sexuality and gender has been destabilized against the notion of self and what is considered to be natural. Psychologists like Sigmund Freud began to question this idea in the early XX century. Freud not only challenged the nature of homosexuality (inversion) but also the nature of heterosexuality. Then, this idea of nature would be changed by interpretations of particular historical moments and relationships of power.
1. Introduction Gays and lesbians are in sexual orientation minorities who face daily sexual stigma in our society. Recently, crimes of violence against lesbigays are highly publicised and are registered in the political agenda. Moreover, the attitudes towards women, lesbigays and transgender people are the subject of international research in recent decades. Despite all the laws that allow homosexuals to marry, adopt children, as well as other rights, discrimination still exists.
The anonymous poet that writes Beowulf fills the poem with multiple aspects that exploit the queer theory, the first being the use of phallic symbols. Phallic symbols are different objects within the poem that could possibly represent a penis in aspect of its size and shape. Beowulf utilizes different objects that are used as phallic symbols and because of this, phallic symbols are one piece that could show that Beowulf was in fact a homosexual. The most prevalent
The sexual and cultural practice of gay and lesbian were associated with secret knowledge and codes. Discussed in Eve Sedgwick’s The Epistemology of the closet( ) The gradually reifying effect of this refusal meant that by the end of the nineteenth century, when it had become fully current – as obvious to Queen Victoria as to Freud – that knowledge meant sexual knowledge, and secrets sexual, there had in fact developed one particular sexuality that was distinctively constituted as secrecy: the perfect object for the by now insatiably exacerbated epistemological/sexual anxiety of the turn-of-the-century subject (Sedgwick 1990: 73). Sedgwick also argues that there were a lot of argument and discussion were done on Homosexuality since the end of the 19th century in Europe. Homosexual was pictured as secret and isolated from public and private. Homosexual identities are a stick in textual construction which shape in discourse, without the discourse which constructs the identity seems to be no agency.
Compulsory heterosexuality and the taboo against homosexuality is incorporated in gender norms (Spargo, 1998; Butler, 1990). Acts are labeled masculine or feminine to institute a system of gender so that social institutions can claim that acts are biologically-inherent for males or females. Through this system, heterosexuality can be justified as the biologically-inherent, gender-typical sexual orientation. As such, a male individual, merely because of his homosexuality, becomes perceived as unmasculine, feminine, gender-atypical. Following the same logic, a female individual, merely because of her homosexuality, becomes regarded as unfeminine, masculine,
She goes on to suggest that gender is a form of parody and some genders are more parodic than others; in highlighting the disjunction between the body of the performer and gender being performed she reveals the imitative structure of all gender.Forced heterosexuality is an important concept in Butler’s work where the ‘natural division of men and women is based on the regulation of sexuality within the boundaries of heterosexuality. Performative masculinity and femininity validate the seeming ‘naturalness of normative forms of sexuality while marginalizing other options of sexuality, desire, identities and behaviors which are seen as abnormal and wrong (Butler 1999, Lovaas and
This ihas become notably helpful over the years. Homosexuals and LGBT individuals represent a minority group that has been historically portrayed unfairly by the media (Fouts & Inch, 2005; Netzley, 2010). However, a relatively greater number of strong negative gender stereotypes still exist according to Calzo & Ward (2009), the end goal is for the general public to first accept these group of persons as every other human
The special significance of this Biological Model is the difference in sex hormone levels and biological functioning between the genders. Testosterone itself is not only associated to extreme sex motivations but has also been linked to violent conduct and loss of both impulse control and good judgement, or a loss of a combination of these The other studies by Dabbs, Carr, Frady, & Riad, 1995; Dabbs, Frady, Carr, & Besch, 1987; Dabbs, Jurkovic, & Frady, 1991, have also proved the connection between levels of testosterone, feelings for violent and immoral behaviour. For example, the research has proved that the male sexual harasser have higher levels of testosterone in their bodies than men with no convictions of the general population (Baxter, Barbaree, & Marshall,