In the film, Mean Girls directed by Mark Waters (2004), adolescents are represented as bullies, who use manipulation to achieve what they want and are two-faced with the people around them; they are constantly stereotyped as a high social group like the plastics and a low social group like the mathletes; also they are presented as young people that fall under peer pressure, and are overly concerned about their appearance and about being socially accepted. In this film by Mark Waters, teenagers are depicted as bullies who constantly manipulate people to get what they want and who are two-faced. Certain social groups, such as the Plastics, use manipulation to achieve their goals. This is evident when, in the phone call scene, Cady influences Gretchen and Katy and she makes them start hating Regina. This suggests that teenagers, in order to get what they want, will manipulate their own friends without caring about the consequences.
For my replication study I chose to use Bandura’s Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models, also known as the Bobo Doll experiment. The purpose of the experiment was to not only see how impressionable young children are to adult actions, but also to measure the difference in young boys aggression to young girls after witnessing an adult act out aggressively against a bobo doll. The conclusion was that children are impressionable, and Bandura found that boys were more prone to act out in violence or make violent remarks as opposed to girls. The aspects of this study that I would target would be the male tendency to act aggressively as opposed to females. I would chose to keep the setup of the bobo doll experiment, viewing
The Little Albert experiment was a case study showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. The study also provides an example of stimulus generalization. It was carried out by John B. Watson and his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, at Johns Hopkins University. The results were first published in the February 1920 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology. After observing children in the field, Watson hypothesized that the fearful response of children to loud noises is an innate unconditioned response.
Gershoff who states that “[a] child does not get spanked and then run out to rob a store,” explains that the negative effects of physical punishment may not become evident for some time (Smith, par. 16). Instead, there are indirect changes in how children ponder emotion. A study published in Child Abuse and Neglect exposed a cycle of violence in homes where spanking was used. Researchers interviewed more than one-hundred families and found that children between the ages of three and seven who were physically punished were more likely to sanction hitting as a means of resolving their conflicts (Smith, par.
In relation to delinquents, the social learning theory can be an explanation for their actions and may explain how people are influenced by peers and imitate behaviours no matter what behaviour it may be (Shoemaker, D. 2013). There multiple strengths for the social learning theory due to the sheer amount of evidence that supports the idea that people imitate their peers ideas, whether face to face or what’s on the media, by looking at the ‘Bobo doll’ study simply watching something on the television is enough to encourage young children to imitate their peers (Bandura, A. 1965), also behaviours that have been witnessed
The article by Carey Gelenter entitled “Right From Wrong- At What Age Do Children Develop A Moral Sense, and Understand What it Means to Commit a Crime?” discusses a child’s understanding of morals and whether children understand the severity of their actions or crimes. The article lists quotes and research from many child psychiatrists backing up the conclusion that there is no designated time when a child understands what their actions truly mean, but there are ages where it is expected. The article lists examples where children have committed murder and other heinous crimes and discussed whether the severity of the crimes called for the child to tried as an adult would. The article provides insight from many outside sources to explain how
The strain theory states simply that there are many stressors in a young person’s life which may cause them to “act out.” The social learning theory states that adolescents imitate what they see either at home or within their peer group, which often leads to imitating criminal or delinquent behavior. The control theory states that the amount of control a parent has over their child (whether too strong or too loose) has an impact on their behavior and their likelihood to engage in delinquent behavior. Finally, the labeling theory focuses not on what initially causes delinquent behavior but the reaction that such behavior sanctions and the behavior that follows said reaction. In many cases, one aspect in an adolescent’s life can be related back to more than one, if not all four of these theories. The content that is shown through media outlets such as video games and television has a major impact on the behavior of adolescents
Bandura (1977) believed that humans actively process information and relate to the relationship of their behaviours and its consequences (McLeod, 2011). In this case, siblings and I were actively processing information through the television shows that we saw. In the Bandura’s (1961) Bobo Doll Experiment shows a study of social behaviours through imitation and observation (Mcleod, 2011). Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) tested 36 boys and 36 girls. The children were divided into three groups equally.
Babchishin, which used people that have been labeled as sex offenders already. The overall goal of this research to find differences amongst this group and the different categories that lie within it as well, by using scales such as sexy versus not sexy or erotic versus non-erotic type categories (KELLY). Being that children are commonly victims of sexual abuse, the study stated that they set out to find more answers and predictors of why this happens and how they found early on in their research that a key predictor of potential sexual molestation is the amount of attraction that a person has towards children (KELLY). From the research done, they found that out of this group of men, there was a larger amount of attraction to girls rather than women and that there was not a large difference in results regarding the attraction of boys to men. It is stated that results found were consistent with the relation of sexual attraction and those of which who were categorized as pedophiles, which I think could be used in the future as a type of screening of individuals for a preventative
One of the studies conducted in the United States have showed that those parents who are involved in delinquency acts will have more chances that their adolescent will be also involved in the criminal activities (the Effects of Parental Dysfunction on Children, New York, NY: Springer, US.). This is due to observational learning. Parents are like a model for their children and in observational learning a particular behavior is learned by observing a model. It is argued that irritable, ineffective discipline and poor parental monitoring are the most proximal determinants of the early development and maintenance of antisocial