Lab 2 – Water Quality and Contamination Experiment 1: Effects of Groundwater Contamination Table 1: Water Observations (Smell, Color, Etc.) Beaker Observations 1 There was no smell 2 When I pour the oil in the water I noticed the oil started to bubble to the top. So I got to stir the oil that’s when there were smaller bubbles. As I smell the water there was no smell to the water. Putting the vinegar I didn’t smell anything but I did see the water was a change it was dark that’s when I added the vinegar 4 I added the detergent and it look like a cloud with bubbles.
Bubbles are round because they are ‘minimal surface structures’, which means that bubbles hold the least possible surface area they can. Out of all the geometric shapes, a sphere has the least surface area. Bubble soap is mostly made of water, soap, and glycerin. Glycerin is an organic compound, and its common sources are animal fat and vegetable oil. It is a clear, odorless liquid, and has a sweet taste.
It is an alkaline, a base and neutralizes the acid secreted by the parietal cells. The base and acid reacts with each other producing water in the process. This the main way the stomach can be protected from being auto-digesting or digesting itself. ("How does your stomach keep from digesting itself? | HowStuffWorks," n.d.) The mucous doesn’t get digested as it secrets the hydrochloric acid because the pH within the parietal cells remain neutral.
Abstract In this experiment, the isolation, characterization, and determination of concentration and purity of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA from Allium Cepa or onion was performed. DNA was isolated through the use of a homogenizing solution. The absorbance ratio was 1.5, which indicates protein contamination. Moreover, the characterization of its components was conducted through the use of different chemical tests. The DNA gathered by the group bore positive results only on Test for Deoxyribose; compared to the standard solution, which bore positive results on all chemical tests, namely, Test for Deoxyribose, Test for Phosphate, Test for Purines, and test for Pyrimidines.
The Golden Jojoba oil is famous in the world for its organic and healing characteristics it has a bright, golden color. The jojoba oil is extracted from seeds of the jojoba plant which is usually found in United States and northern Mexico, Because of its nontoxic properties it does not clog skin pores. It can be used around eyes, wounds and blisters without irritating the skin, this oil is all about providing nourishment and moisture to skin, hair and nails. The golden jojoba oil has high amounts of natural oils that resemble those found in the skin, which helps it to dissolves easily in the skin. The jojoba oil also provides an invigorating scent that adds to its already great effects.
Biodiesel is much safer than diesel from petroleum when biodiesel is escaped to the surrounding environment; moreover, it is much less inflammable as biodiesel’s flashpoint is 130°C as compared to petroleum diesel which is only 52°C. As a result, biodiesel is low-risk to be stored, kept, and delivered (U.S Department of Energy). Trans-esterification reaction can be illustrated as following: Triglyceride + Alcohol → Methyl esters (biodiesel) + Glycerol (Vegetable oil) (Methanol) FIGURE 1.1 Typical trans-esterification reaction is carried out to produce Biodiesel (AOCS Lipid Library) Furthermore, biodiesel can be produced from the tobacco seed and soya bean which tobacco seed oil reduces the
2.3 Fabrication of PLA microsphere The term “microsphere” refers to small spherical particles having diameters of micrometer ranging from 1–1000 µm. Microspheres is also known as microparticles (Bao et al., 2006). Good microspheres should fulfill these requirements: (1) able to maintain the stability and biological activity of the drug during the encapsulation process, (2) the size is smaller than 250 µm, (3) the amount of drug released should not beyond the specified limit, and (4) must be in the form of pure powder without containing any impurities and form aggregates or coagulant (Jain, 2000). There are many ways to prepare PLA microspheres including emulsification technique with single or double solvent evaporation system (Bao et al.,
Now-a-days, solvent-free, low viscosity and aliphatic partially bio-based diisocyanate(PBD) polymer based polyurethane synthesis from vegetable oil has been given more interest. This is due to low cost, environmental friendly and reducing low volatile organic compound. In this paper, we synthesized polyurethane (PU) adhesives of three different stoichiometries (NCO/OH) ratios by reacting a castor oil based polyol (OH) with PBD (NCO) of various compositions in presence of dibutylintin dialaurate (DBTDL) for the purpose of wood-wood adhesion strength. Complete Formation of PU adhesives was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect on NCO/OH ratios on wood-to-wood bonding strength has been studied by lap shear strength measurement.
The mixture is ‘spotted’ at the bottom of the TLC plate and allowed to dry. The plate is placed in a closed vessel containing solvent (the mobile phase) so that the liquid level is below the spot. TLC has advantages over paper chromatography in that its results are more reproducible, and that separations are very efficient because of the much smaller particle size of the stationary phase. The solvent ascends the plate by capillary action, the liquid filling the spaces between the solid particles. This technique is usually done in a closed vessel to ensure that the atmosphere is saturated with solvent vapour and that evaporation from the plate is minimised before the run is complete.
For all adhesives, decontamination of contaminated cured adhesives by “washing and drying” resulted in the lowest bond strength. But, each of the two decontamination procedures, “slow drying” or “washing, drying and reapplication of adhesive,” was acceptable. They related this result to removal of the adhesive layer during washing and drying, leaving a surface that was demineralized but non-infiltrated by monomers. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation also showed minimal resin infiltration on the fractured