When a woman tries to do her own thing, she still appeals to the men for approval. Women’s power appears to be only measured by their relationship with other men. It is insinuated that women are not worthy enough to have the same power as men. Generally, the women is thought to act foolish and emotional to please the men. Women try to prove their equality to men, but generally, the masculinity is the superior
Liberal feminists argue that our society holds the false belief that women are, by nature, less intelligent and physically incapable than men. It tends to discriminate women in the academy, the political forum, and the market place. Liberal feminists believe that women’s subordination is rooted in a set of customary and legal constraints. Such constraints block the women’s progress and success in the public world. Liberal feminist aims to show that as a human being the capacities of man and women are equal and it fights for the political, legal and economic equality for women.
Here, second wave feminists use Gilligan’s findings to advocate for a feminist ethic of care, therefore, overcoming the male bias status quo. By doing this, second wave feminists cite cognitive, value and experiential differences between men and women, for instance, women act with empathy, inclusion and protection from harm with a focus on personal relationships while men act with reason, individuality and act on universal
Including the gender difference perspective, created by society that gender differences separate a fine line between men and women. Woman’s norms, costumes and expectations for their gender greatly differ from men’s. There are different values and characteristics associated with being a woman, and as a reason for why men and woman experience the world differently. Women are viewed as solf care takers who are emotional, submissive, creatures that are often seen as sexual instruments for men. While on the other hand men are thought to be tough aggressive workers.
‘Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself But as relative to him ; she is not regarded as an autonomous being …… She is define and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; She is the incidental ,the inessential as opposed to the essential. He is the subject, he is the absolute ___ She is the Other.’ Simon de Beauvoir, The Second Sex Simon De Beauvoir ‘s word Other for women is clearing that men are president of this world and women are Other as in ‘The Caretaker’ ,absence of women character make them Other and presence of men make them presidents. Men in the play are presenting humanity and women do not belong to humanity in the world of play. Pinter clears the path for
Language has been historically man-made with the male forms reflecting the male’s position in the society and the female forms perceived as deviant. Various lexical markings have also prevented women from expressing and raising consciousness about their own experience as legitimately human by preventing women from speaking with their own voice. One of the most common examples of gender bias in language is the use of pronouns, such as ‘he’ or ‘him’ to something related to both men and women. Another great example is that of master vs. mistress. There are unusual connotations surrounding the two terms and detriment to the female.
Introduction “Woman is the incidental, the inessential, as opposed to the essential. He is the subject, he is the absolute-she is the other’’ - SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR, SECOND SEX Human existence is an ambiguous interplay between transcendence and immanence, yet men have privileged with expressing transcendence through projects, whereas women have been forced into the repetitive and uncreative life of immanence. Literature is an expression and it shared the feelings and emotions of a particular person with a group. Most probably, the writers write out their own experiences or else they write out some other’s experience. The experience may be tragic one or a comic one.
In her detailed description of woman’s “situation,” Beauvoir analyses how women are made to give up transcendence, their existential right, and adopt a constrained, repetitive imprisonment. She asserts that“One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman” (Beauvoir, “Introduction”). In the same study, “The Second Sex”, she also stresses (while talking about woman) that “She is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute – she is the Other” (Beauvoir, “Introduction”).This “circumscribed, repetitive imprisonment” and the process of “becoming a woman”(Beauvoir, “Introduction”) is what leads to the formation of “cultural constructs” that become the definition of a woman’s existence. Drawing on these ideas of Beauvoir, writer and critic Toril Moi explains the term “femininity” as a “cultural construct” in her essay “Feminist, Female, Feminine”.
The researchers described two different barriers, difference barrier and societal barriers. First, the difference barrier is discrimination based upon bias or prejudice. Women are thought to be followers while men are thought to lead. Social role theory defines women as incapable of maintaining control and influence the way men can. Also, supply barrier defines an unfair advantage that men have over women regarding
Introduction Feminism is both an academic commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women. Feminists inquiry a wide range of standpoints on social, cultural, economic, and political events. In the assigned reading, most feminist critiques of human rights focus on the androcentrism and argue that, ostensibly, human rights are in actuality men’s rights. As a consequence, exclusions, constraints and abuses more typical of woman’s lives are neither recognized nor protected by human rights instruments. This means that everything in humanity has approximately been gender-biased in favor of men.