INTRODUCTION What Is Urban Renewal? Urban renewal, which is generally called urban regeneration ("regeneration" in the United Kingdom), ("revitalization" in the United States), is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of reconstruction. The process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, and has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world.
Day by day the number of people in urban areas is increasing. And they are leaving their traditional agricultural sector and by this process urbanization is increasing. The Lewis Theory of Development: One of the best- known early theoretical models of development that emphasized on the structural changes of a primarily subsistence economy was that constructed by Nobel winning economist W. Arthur Lewis in 1950 and then modified and expanded by John Fei and Gustav Ranis (Economic Development; Michael P. Todaro, Stephen C. Smith; Page- 115) This two-sector model was the general theory of development in excessive –labor developing countries and still it is being used for studying the growth in developing countries. In this model, there are two sectors- one is rural subsistence sector and another is urban industrial sector. This model emphasizes on the labor migration and also on the output growth and employment in the industrial sector.
Explain the spatial transformation process of urban renewal in South African cities. 824605 Kyle van Heyde Tut group- Jarred Introduction The purpose of this essay is to explain and further understand the spatial transformation of urban renewal in South Africa. Aspects of land use, gentrification, tourism as well as looking at both the public and private sectors in terms of urban renewal and the development of ideologies, will be assessed. Also assessing the negatives of urban development as well as the positives. Another aspect which will be touched upon is that of cultural gentrification and how the spatial transformation and urban development effects these cultures within society.
On the other hand, the development often faced with adversaries and problems as a results of implementing changes economically. The city itself has faced abundant of urban environmental problems due to the rapid growth and concentration of population and industries. Problems include environmental pollution mainly air and water pollution as well as facing excessive exploitation of waste negatively impacted Tokyo at one point in time. With the help of Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG), it had successfully been able to solve many of these problems, taking creative measures ahead of the national government and most importantly creating role model by leading other prefectures in Japan. The first problem that arises in Tokyo was the increase in environmental air pollution in 1970s.
Depending upon the function the cost of maintenance may vary.the conservation parks are mainly for the conservation of the local species of trees and animals.along with conservation the other agenda for this parks are promoting tourism.it requires high amount of maintanence and have limitations on its accessibility. The neighborhood or community parks are generally provided as an asset to the residential community and it provides with leisure facilities and an escape from the dense urban areas. These spaces are mainly provided to promote human well being and conserve the flora and fauna up to some extent. Urban Parks (Neighborhood/community parks) Urban parks acts as a catalyst in conserving biodiversity it is a home to various cultural provisional services. Urban Green Spaces a tool For Conserving Biodiversity • Depending upon the strategy adopted in the planning stage a parks can play multifaceted roles in conserving biodiversity.
While cities are perceived as engines of the enormous potential for economic and social development, creating jobs and offering new opportunities, they can also generate and intensify social exclusion and poverty. In reaching this goal, I need to cultivate knowledge about city planning. There was no doubt that choosing Illinois of Urbana champaign would be the best school option for me since it is one of the largest and long-lived urban planning program in the country that offered firm roots not only in the social and policy sciences. Additionally, having the largest public university library in the U.S that means choice, depth, breadth, and diversity. Faculties are engaged in a wide variety of research and outreach activities would make me pushed into a greater understanding of human settlements and planning situations.
Born in Bandung and raised in several different cities around Indonesia such as Palu, Surabaya, Rembang, Tegal and Semarang, I have witnessed rapid development of Indonesia Archipelago during the past two decades. I have always been fascinated by how cities has evolved from a small village to a global city and curious about how it has been planned and designed to be large in size and population while still maintaining its function and adapting to changes. Later on in my academic career as an architect, while recognizing the positive side of city development, I am more aware of the negative consequences of inequality and its social and ecological impacts. Urban landscape are now the most visible sign that cities have become polarized. Two different area standing side by side separated by status and rights.
The PPP model is a good approach to involve private developers in the generation of affordable housing. The policies related to affordable housing are still evolving. The success of this policy involves proper evaluation and implementation. Public sector acts as an enabler and it needs to bring certain changes in the existing policies. Policy makers need to adopt a circumspect approach to evaluate prior policies, pilot projects and do vigorous research to ensure better chances of success.
High population and urbanization in Surabaya is a consequence of city development. This resulted in high demand for housing. The Europeans, Chinese, Arabs, and Natives all need a place to live and a place of business. This means that if the number of housing needs is not comparable with the provision of housing by the city government of Surabaya, it will cause social problems in the field of social and health. One of them is the emergence of slums in a kampong that is considered to have caused various infectious diseases and contagious since the beginning of the 20th century.
An effective plan will project a clear time frame and strategy of implementation including investment and infrastructure improvement that later on will be a funding sources. To design the area, an input from community needs is important to help set the standard and expectation before construction is started. Community support is also mentioned as one of the factor that could determine the successful of TOD implementation in the city. If the community member in TOD area say they will support the commercial plan, then the market could be passed into the neighborhood successfully. Beside a well planned design of the TOD area, rail-based system company and realtors should consider what community needs in TOD area