What the student is passionate about, or ideas that they may be curious about are integral to his/her learning. In this context, learning is highly personalized. Similar to Social Efficiency, the Learner Centered ideology is competency based. However, the Learner Centered theory uses informal subjective diagnosis as opposed to criterion referenced assessments. Learner Centered ideology incorporates both developmental and constructivist learning theories meaning children create their own learning experiences appropriate for their developmental maturity and according to their own pace.
(Key Theories on Classroom Management,n.d) B F Skinner(1954), relied on the statement that the best way to modify behaviour was to modify the environment. He was a proponent for many instructional strategies that modern day "progressive” educational reformers advocate for: scaffold instruction, small units, repetition and review of instructions, and immediate feedback. Skinner did not approve of the use of punishments in school, or as a behavioural modification technique in general. He posits that punishments were ineffective and he advocated for the frequent use of reinforcement (i.e. rewards) to modify and influence student
This paper has practical outlooks and prescriptions for teaching students to think critically when deliberating inferences. The teaching processes advised: argument mapping, active argument practice and repetition, are realistic methodologies to implement. The author takes care not to contradict the nature of critical thinking and cautions the reader to teach and research using empirical evidence. The author’s voice welcomes a shared experience in understanding critical
To perform as a good citizen in a real society, you must be well educated with not only the core subjects but also the wisdom of life. Thus, transferring the knowledge you learned in school into real life is significantly important. If you do not have the ability to transfer your knowledge, education becomes pointless. Teachers should be able to work as facilitators to guide their students to come up with the solutions independently to their problems. (What are the philosophical foundations of American education pg.302) Consequently, in the process of approaching solution, students will naturally ask questions and earn knowledge.
Exemplars of constructivist theory may be found in the works of John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb. Dewey (1859–1952) believed education must engage with an expand experience; those methods used to educate must provide for exploration, thinking, and reflection; and that the interaction with the environment is necessary for learning. He advocated the learning process of experiential learning through real life experience to construct and conditionalize knowledge, which is consistent with the Constructivists (“Constructivism,”). Montessori (1870–1952) emphasized the value of experiential learning to conditionalize knowledge: “Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the
Throughout the book Freire longs for an education system where teachers and students are equal. He speaks of educational pedagogy when he associates the oppressed with students and the oppressors with teachers in order to promote co-intentional education as an alternative. “Teachers and students (leadership and people), co-intent on reality, are both Subjects, not only in the task of unveiling that reality, and thereby coming to know it critically, but in the task of re-creating that knowledge. As they attain this knowledge or reality through common reflection and action, they discover themselves as its permanent re-creators. In this way, the presence of the oppressed in the struggle for their liberation will be what it should be: not pseudo-participation,
Fixing the strength is complimentary to remedying weakness, which have been the traditional psychological model. Positive education is one of the main research interest within the positive psychology which studies about the consequences of positive conditions and individual strengths in educational settings. John Dewey advocated positive schooling through the idea of constructivism, which emphasizes the individual’s ability to construct learned information according to their own idiosyncratic capabilities and views. Montessori system emphasized the importance of creativity on learning where children are provided with hands on materials through which they can express themselves through learning. Elizabeth Hurlock studied the effectiveness praise in the classroom and found that praise was effective in children regardless of age, ability and gender.
So it would seem that behavior is key to the goal of the teacher and by re-enforcing positive and ignoring and stifling negative behaviour teachers can control and conduct behaviour which is key to classroom management. Although these behaviorist strategies have been considered and used from 1960’s. There is still some Skinner in the classroom today and not only used to control behaviour but to reward through reward systems. Hussang on her presentation on key classroom management theories claims that “Skinner’s work has been directly incorporated into modern school systems. Though rewards were utilized for good
Students become self-reflected learners; they take responsibility for their own learning. The key to assessment as learning enables students to develop the capacity to monitor their own work in progress which the teachers support through encouragement and monitoring. ( Dear Hammond, L. (2012) Based on curriculum expectations and the achievement charts, the students are taught to use rubrics, samples and models as a good practice. In addition, formative assessment is a procedure utilized by instructors and students amid guideline that gives unequivocal input to alter progressing educating and figuring out how to enhance students ' accomplishment of planned instructional outcomes. Formative evaluation is a technique for persistently assessing students ' scholastic needs and advancement inside the classroom and goes before nearby benchmark appraisals and state-commanded summative assessments.