The judicial branch of Canada has played one of the most unique roles in history due to their shaping of Canada. The decisions rendered by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (hereby referred to as the JCPC) and the Supreme Court of Canada impacted the values of Canadian citizens. These decisions were often contradictory and exposed the legal system as flawed, inflexible and stubborn. Throughout the decades the judiciary sought to maintain rules crafted by the Fathers of Confederation in 1867, rather than adopt more effective standards for judgement. The Canadian federal and provincial powers were broken into sections 91 and 92 in the British North America Act of 1867.
Colonialism is a perpetual and relevant issue in Canada. The definition of Colonialism is, “The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically” according to the Oxford dictionary (The Oxford Dictionary, 2018). On a small scale, Canada is influenced by Britain as British Commonwealth; the consequences that preceded the colonization are evident in the contrast of the standards of living between the general populations and Aboriginals. Colonization can also be or continue with, “geographical intrusion in the form of agricultural, urban or industrial encroachments” (LaRocque, 2008). The freedom of religion in Canada relies on the Eurocentric view
The main revised law was simplification of immigration applications. With these new laws, it became possible to process immigration applications faster, and the inconvenience has been greatly resolved. (CTV news, 2008) On June 11, 2008, Stephen Harper on behalf of the Canadian government, apology to Aboriginal peoples in Canada about the abuse, hardship, residential school, and compulsory assimilation. (Canadian encyclopedia, 2015) In 2001, Canada replaced its 1976 Immigration Act with the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, after the 09/11 terror in the USA. (Canadian encyclopedia, 2015) Canada's commitment to these immigrants, new immigration policies, and communication and care between immigrants show Canada's steady immigration rate and strong economic power each year.
This will be demonstrated by focusing on the roots of the history behind this rule, meaning the objectives and demonstrate whether they have been met or not, to show that expanding the law through the CEGEP level will be an impediment to society. Furthermore, it is clear that the Conquest of 1760 made a big impact in Canada history when Britain acquired pieces of New France at the end of Seven years of War and because of the Royal proclamation in 1763, Quebec colony was created and it presented the French language. Therefore, the charter of the French language was first introduced by the first Parti Quebecois government which was back then lead by Premier René Lévesque (Kelly, 2014, para 2). According to the Montreal Gazette, it was after the Quiet Revolution in the 1960s that the language in the province became the center of attention. In fact, as written in the article about conflict
The “living Tree” approach versus strict construction is another important aspect of the major terms and conditions set in the constitution act (1867). Canada has a “living tree” approach when it refers to the legal system we have in Canada. The Judical Committee of the Privy Council once stated that “The British North America Act planted in Canada a living tree capable of growth and expansion within its natural limits” (McCormack & Bueckert, 2013). In Canada we have a very democratic way of seeing and applying our decisions on different political views. Whether it’s voting in elections to elect new MP, elect a new Prime Minister or the voting between the political parties in the house of commons when deciding on important issues in our society, a decision is never made without the vote between many people.
Canada was transformed on April 17, 1982 when Queen Elizabeth II gave her royal acceptance of the Constitution Act. Prior to the signing of the Act, which included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canada remained under the control of Britain and individual rights were not guaranteed. The Constitution Act established the Government of Canada, apart from Britain, and granted it the ability to amend its own Constitution. It also gave the Supreme Court more authority, provide the provinces political and economic controls and gave new guarantees of equality and individual rights not provided for in the British North American (BNA) Act. The new Constitution and Charter were controversial in the provinces, but Pierre Trudeau’s determination
The U.S. culture is very similar to Canadians as we are exposed to it all the time in media sources. The events in American history have also affected Canada from a political perspective, which lead to the Democracy that is present today. Another way the U.S. has affected Canada is from a military perspective because Americans are quick to jump to war and Canada has had to help control them which lead to them being peacekeepers. The United States helped mold the Canadian identity by being both a threat and support to the nation; this will continue into the 21st century but Canada will keep it’s unique identity. A country 's culture can be seen as interchangeable with identity; in Canada there is evidence of American culture everywhere.
The defence partnership provides both countries with greater security than could be achieved individually. The U.S. and Canada show commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) they have a principle known as “collective defense” where if one country is attacked, it is considered an attack on all the allied countries. After the 9/11 attacks, Canada became part of the war, being allied with the U.S. Canada supported them. Canada’s culture has been immensely affected by American influence, Americanization has happened throughout Canada with the spread of American brands such as Walmart, Coca-Cola, and Apple, that have affected canadian lifestyles and are used by canadians daily. The spread of American brands changes the economy along with the culture.
For example, in the case of Reference re Manitoba Language Rights the Court stated that the Manitoba Act established certain Constitutional duties that the legislature was responsible for upholding (1985). A more concrete example comes from the two cases of O’Connor and Mills. In the O’Connor case the Court dealt with the release of medical records in sexual assault cases, the Court split five to four over how stringent the requirements surrounding introducing victim medical records into court should be (1995). In authoring a legislative response, the legislature choose to base their response not off the majority opinion, but off the strong dissent authored by justice L’Heureux-Dube (Baker, 2010, 22). The legislature’s response, Bill C-46, was challenged in the Mills case; remarkably the Court upheld the Bill C-46 in a 7-1 decision (1999).
Two of the theories of leadership are transactional and transformational. Transactional leadership is setting clear expectations of an individual and using rewards or punishment to achieve results, while transformational leadership is identifying the need for change and trying to achieve the change. Two Canadian public administrative leaders who show these leadership skills were Tommy Douglas and Sir George Arthur French. Tommy Douglas was able to show transformational leadership through creating healthcare, Canada-wide pension plan and bargaining rights for civil servants; while Sir George Arthur French was able to show transactional leadership by leading his men across western |Canada, and he showed transformation leadership by challenging the Canadian government. Tommy Douglas would have been seen as a great leader in the Behavioural Era due to his ability to identify the need for change and the betterment of society; however, he would have not been seen as a great leader in the Personality Era due to him alienating the Saskatchewan doctors in his healthcare implementation.
Initiative should be taken by the provinces and the Canadian government to come up with a solution to the problems that the senate constantly faces. Without reform, the senate cannot possibly be a voice for regional interests and an accurate representation of Canadian society. In order to understand why reform of the Canadian senate is important, it is also important to understand it is necessary for the Canadian senate to be a
Trudeau was born on October 18, 1919 and grew up to become one of Canada’s greatest, leaders. In the early 1960s, he started getting involved in federal politics by joining the Liberal Party of Canada and was appointed as the Party’s Parliamentary Secretary, and later became the Party’s Minister of Justice. In 1967, Trudeau was persuaded to become the new leader of the Liberal Party and to continue on the legacy of Lester B. Pearson, the previous Prime Minister. On April 20, 1968, he was sworn in as Canada’s fifteenth Prime Minister and served for three non-consecutive terms and one interim. As a result of his brilliant new ideas and charismatic personality, Trudeau obtained appreciation from Canadians and was elected to lead Canada from 1968 to 1979 and again from 1980 to 1984.