Who they grew up with? What was their childhood like? What was their academic standing? How do they cope with the work environment? As to say Stone’s study was not only based on the Kraft’s research but he also based it on 150 Serial Killers who manifested sadistic behaviors, out of those 150 serial killers 47.3% had committed more than 3 homicides with sexual acts.
The purpose of this paper is to look at recidivism rates among adult and juvenile sex offenders, and male and female sex offenders, in order to better understand who is likely to recidivate and why. The first article, Sex Offenders and Sex Crime Recidivism, by Kristen Budd and Scott Desmond looks at the relationship between criminal justice sanctions and recidivism among sex offenders. In the United States, the recent trend has been to incarcerate and sentence sex offenders to longer prison terms than in the past. The purpose of this article is to try to determine if these longer and harsher sentences have had any effect on sex offender recidivism. This is particularly important because of the sheer cost of incarceration as well as public
In the American society, we are seeing more and more of criminal situations being reported and defined as date rape.Date rape is a common problem facing women in today 's society. Date rape is a form of sexual violence and is not a woman 's fault if she happens to fall victim of date rape. The two forms of rape are acquaintance rape and the well known date rape. Date rape is wrong in all cultures. The main causes of date rape are drugs which come in different forms and have different names.
According to Boswell and Spade the term “rape culture” is the ideas and values that create an environment that increases the chances for it to occur, or promotes, rape. This term derives from conflict theory, which advocates that those who are more powerful define what is considered “normal” and “deviant”, and social norms usually reflect their interests. Thus, rape culture is not meant to specify a setting, but how the atmosphere about a certain setting makes rape more or less likely to occur. For instance, in college, specifically in fraternities men control the setting; therefore, they promote a rape culture, since they don’t consider themselves or their “brothers” deviants for their actions. Instead, they have adopted a set of beliefs
Early on in the Ripper investigation, the murderer was assumed to be a ‘prostitute killer’, even though many of his victims were not selling their sexual services (Wattis, 2015). Wattis (2015, p.2) noted that the case was an “iconic criminal event” and that it had a big impact on women and their fear of violence and murder. She also noted that it placed a number of temporal and spatial restrictions on their lives. Another impact that the Ripper case may have had on society is the police approach to prostitution. In the decades following this case, many changes to legislation have been made with the welfare of sex workers being seen as more important and more emphasis is put on ensuring they are safe (Wattis, 2015).
(Other than any incidents already mentioned,) have you been forced or coerced to engage in unwanted sexual activity by; someone you didn’t know before, a casual acquaintance OR Someone you know well" (Victimization Surveys, 1998). “Followed by question 43b, Did any incidents of this type happen to you and question 43c, how many times” (Victimization Surveys, 1998). In the NCVS-2 Crime Incident Report, Question 29 asks, "How were you attacked, any other way” (Victimization Surveys, 1998). “Possible responses to question 29 include raped, tried to rape, and sexual assault other than rape or attempted rape” (Victimization Surveys, 1998). “Question 31 asks, what were the injuries you suffered, if any anything else" (Victimization Surveys, 1998).
In this essay, positivism and 2nd/3rd wave feminism are being compared and contrasted on their theories of how victims are given their status. In particular looking into the view of rape victims as this shows differences and similarities between the two theories. In the Sexual Offences Act (2003) it defines rape as forced penetration, with lack of consent, to the vagina, anus or mouth by a penis. Both of these theories explore the views of ‘ideal victims’. The United Nations stated that the term victim was an individual who has suffered harm either physically, mentally or emotional: victimization occurs when a person suffers harm as a result of someone violation criminal laws.
Studies of sexual violence reports within the media have shown that certain stories encompass inappropriate language, resulting in aggrandised and titillating articles. The terminology exerted for reports of sexual crimes can often convey the implication of ‘consensual sex’ rather than that of a criminal act. Words and phrases used throughout news reporting to depict sexual violence can refract from its true nature, for example, the term ‘intercourse’ is occasionally used to signify the act of rape and violent sexual assault, in some instances, the offender has been described as ‘having intercourse with’ or ‘having sex with’. In some instances sexual assaults are often referred to as ‘fondling’, so the crime appears as affectionate rather than
Michel Shirley in 1987 was arrested in 1987 for the murder and rape of Linda Cooke. Critical aspect to note in this case is that this case demonstrates the consequence when the criminal justice system fails to assign a proper weight to identification evidence(Huff et al, 2008). In this case, other evidences including same outsole of the shoes, scratches, and scars on the face of the accused caused the suspicious about Michel
The Impact of Sexual Assault Sexual assault is defined as “Forced sexual activity, an attempt at forced sexual activity, or unwanted sexual touching, grabbing, kissing, or fondling” (Perreault, & Brennan, 2010). It is an event that causes significant short and long-term impact for many victims. It is important to recognise that just as the nature of the assault is highly variable, so is the emotional response to sexual. Individual characteristics (personal resilience and resourcing), assault characteristics (level of violence and the nature of relationship with the perpetrator), and personal trauma history can all influence the impact of sexual assault for the victim (Baker et al., 2012; Starzynski & Ullman, 2014). Some victims experience little or no psychological impact while others will experience a significant disturbance of emotional and psychological wellbeing and daily function.
Mark A. Whatelys article, Gender Differences in Attributions of Blame for Male Rape Victims examines if gender differences exist in blaming a male rape victim and if any theories of victim blame can be applied to the study. In order to collect the data, an intervening cognitive task, and a scenario describing a young man who was arrested outside of a bar where a fight occurred and who was later raped in a police holding cell and the Belief in a Just World Scale were used. It was also predicted that male participants would be more likely to blame the victim than female participants. The results of the study mirrored that of the predictions. Men placed more blame on the victim for the assault than women.
Through evolution and sociobiology, the human race had developed an awareness and concept of the ‘other’, or, those that differ from them. History had morphed this concept in the form of value differences, class differences, and ethnic and race differences, as shown in examples such as the Republican versus Democrat, upper class versus middle class, and whites versus people of color differences respectively. After reading Arlene Audergon’s “Welcome to ‘The War Hotel’”, and the two New York Times articles titled “President Trump’s Reckless Shame Game” and “Spicer Says Maryland Rape Case Shows Need for Illegal Immigration Crackdown,” creates a modern example of how the American system creates the ‘other’ out of immigrants as a step by step process
Testosterone is the biggest influence in sexual behavior, by being able to control and reduce the levels of testosterone it also helps to reduce impulsive aggression. Having a significant reduction in androgen effects is thought to be the cornerstone of hormonal treatment for sex offenders. In an article written about pharmacologic treatments for sex offenders it states that this treatment is best used “For sex offenders presenting with paraphilias, characterized by intense and frequent deviant sexual desire and arousal, which highly predispose the patient to severe paraphilic behaviors (such as pedophilia or serial rapes).” (Garcia, Delavenne, Assumpcao, Thibaut,
Overview Recidivism in sex offenders returning to the community consistently remains a constant concern for society. Recent studies have directed in the direction of guidelines for professionals evaluating sex offenders with exclusive attention on identifying sexual recidivism as a whole. Clinicians must approach sex offender testing with caution; there is not an exact method of predicting sexually deviant behavior with 100 percent accuracy. However, multiple assessments have demonstrated the ability to identify and predict erotic deviant behavior (DeClue & Zavodny, 2014). The Static-99R (revised in 1999) is one of the most widely used forensic assessments developed to predict deviant sexual behavior in adult sex offenders.
There is to many violence opportunities in this country. There are different levels of violence such as murder, assault/battery, robbery a theft combined with the use of force, various types of homicides, including murder and manslaughter, kidnapping, armed robbery, and sexual assault crimes. Though there is sub groups to the sexcual assult crimes. Such as rape, consensual rape, sexual battery or criminal sexual penetration. Though the main difference is the consent aspect of it.