This means that learning outcomes are clear, learning experiences are designed to assist student achievement of those outcomes, and carefully designed assessment tasks allow students to demonstrate achievement of those outcomes. Assessment is a process that focuses on student learning, a process that involves reviewing and reflecting on practice as academics have always done, but in a more planned and careful way (Ewell, 2000). According to Cox and Godfrey (1997) the process of utilizing assessment and evaluation within the context of education relates to the principles of good teaching and classroom management. Assessment and evaluation are necessary aspects of the teaching process because educational objectives are often very broad in their scope and, as such, are often vague. The teacher must therefore interpret these broad objectives and establish specific and tangible
Hence, if classrooms request higher-request deduction to happen, assessments to quantify the understudy 's learning must likewise reflect discriminating considering. The utilization of Bloom 's Taxonomy as an appraisal structure and the substance by procedure framework as an apparatus for building and breaking down direction and evaluation yield critical data for the instructor. In the first place, the device can make the instructor more mindful of the substance and the procedures that he or she is showing and surveying. Second, it can bring up confounds between what is taught and what is surveyed (Kastberg, 2003:405). These are a portion of the reactions of Blooms Taxonomy; instructive scholars have reprimanded Bloom 's Taxonomy on a couple grounds.
Unfortunately, ﬁndings from classroom assessment research has revealed a gap between the recommended and the actual assessment practices regardless of teachers’ gender and teaching experience (Alsarimi, 2000). Brookhart (2001) stated that “grading theory and practices will be better connected once the role of classroom assessment and grading practices in student achievement motivation and, it seems reasonable to argue that to be able to understand and make sense out of the gap between assessment experts’ recommendations and teachers’ assessment practices, it is important to ﬁnd out the possible effects of these practices on students’ achievement goals as one aspect of student motivation for learning. Improved tests can still be improved further
Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
Teachers look for ways of making learning a pleasant experience. They adopt different strategies to cater to the needs of their students and one of these many strategies is cooperative learning. Johnson and Johnson (2016) give us a very comprehensive description of the nature of a cooperative task. Accordingly, constructive controversy theory posits that conflict among ideas, theories, or conclusions leads to uncertainty about the correctness of one’s views, which leads to epistemic curiosity and the active search for additional information and perspectives, which, in turn, leads to reconceptualized and refined conclusions. This process results in constructive outcomes when it occurs in a cooperative context, when students are skilled in
They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching. In their viewpoints, the information from a formative assessment actually is used to adjust instruction ‘to meet students’ needs”. In other words, these adjustments were not only to be made in the instruction but they needed to work. Likewise, Brown (2004) also stated this point in his definition. He defines formative assessment as “evaluating students in the process of ‘forming’ their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them to continue that growth
For a teacher to be successful assessors, a deep understanding of assessments needs to be developed, and the following questions are able to be answered: why do assessments; when to do assessments; and how to assess in ways that have an impact on students learning in a positive way. Once a teacher has the knowledge to make meaningful decisions based on these questions, assessments that are planned, designed and implemented can be used to provide formative, meaningful information and support learning
“One obvious purpose of effective questioning is to minimize teachers’ and students’ errors by focusing on a particular fact, issue, skill, belief, or whatever” ( Wragg & Brown, 2001, p.27). Hence, questioning effectively can make students become more curious and actively participate in learning process (Fusco, 2015). There are some tactics that teachers need to use in order to question
It can show if a school curriculum is meeting the academic requirements that are expected of them and can often determine if a student is struggling and needs extra support. This form of testing is effective when determining a student's placement in classes that may move at a different pace because of skill level. “Test scores may be used, along with other information about students, to diagnose learning needs, so that educators can provide appropriate services, instruction, or academic support (http://edglossary.org/academic-support/)” (Liberty Concepts). Although standardized testing is seen to have some benefits, this is far outweighed by the downfalls. Standardized tests contradict the belief that all students are different but are given tests that treat them as if they are all the same.
Assessment also gives teachers useful information about how to improve their teaching methods. In classroom assessment, since teachers themselves develop, administer and analyze the questions, they are more likely to apply the results of the assessment to their own teaching. Therefore, it provides feedback on the effectiveness of instruction and gives students a measure of their progress. The purpose of classroom assessment is to give students the opportunity to show what they have learned rather than catching them out or to show what they have not learned. Through using appropriate classroom assessment strategies and techniques, teachers can increase their students' motivation and show them how well they have learned the
To answer these questions, Common Core researchers reminded teachers that assessment is an ongoing process and in order to improve teaching and learning, teachers must continually engage in assessment for the purpose of improving teaching and learning. With that being said, Common core developers have outlined the approach to assessing. To avoid layering on top of other assessments already being used, teachers and administrators will need to examine their assessment approaches so that testing continues to add to, rather than take away from teaching young children. To direct teachers in this approach, they would need to become familiar with the guidelines provided in the Common Core Standards. Next, in reference to assessment results being used for high-stakes such as grade retention, Common Core