Honey Fungus: You can use resistant varieties, avoid water logging, shading, drought areas, protect roots from damage, avoid planting at an infected site, infected roots and stumps should be removed. Soil sterilisation using approved chemical products will control the disease. 3. Slugs: Rake the garden in spring to remove leaves also move boards and other material you may find slugs hide in, trapping and hand picking helps to get rid of slugs. You can also use copper barriers/strips to trap the slugs in, animals such as beetles, shrews, ducks and starlings feed on them.
2.11. Effect of chemical fungicide and biocontrol agents: Seed dressing with systemic acylalanine fungicides (eg, metalaxyl) is very effective against systemic seedling infections (Brokenshire, 1980). Fungicidal seed treatment followed by a foliar spray is a common practice to control downy mildews when deemed economical. Metalaxyl seed treatment (0.25 – 0.6 a.i. per kg seed) has been reported to control downy mildews in pearl millet (Singh and
BER is caused by a calcium deficiency that is related to wide fluctuations in available moisture. To prevent BER, maintain a steady rate of plant growth without stress. A consistent and ample supply of moisture can reduce the problem by helping to maintain a steady flow of calcium from the growing medium to the fruit. Mulching also will help by conserving soil moisture. BER is more serious when an excess of nitrogen fertiliser has been applied.
The use of pesticides can be reduced with the help of forecasting of diseases and pest infection. Infection rate and disease severity are highly dependent on environmental parameters like temperature, humidity, leaf wetness duration, rainfall, etc. Using correlation of these parameters with the infection rate, a mathematical prediction model can be devised to estimate the future value of infection. It predicts risk or no risk for the particular infection to occur on that particular crop . Advance information about severity of risk help to alert the farmers to manage the quality and quantity of spray of pesticides for particular pest and disease.
It is this white latex which is vulcanized to form rubber (Navie and Adkins, 2008). However, the rubber tree is prone to a wide range of foliar diseases, which causes yield losses of rubber latex. Colletotrichum leaf disease (CLD) is considered as one of the major foliar diseases that causes declining yields of rubber in Asia (Thambugala and Deshappriya, 2009). According to Bailey and Jeger (1992), Colletotrichum is one of the most common and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi. At present, there have been about 900 species described or assigned to Colletotrichum.
A number of factors are thought to contribute to the decline of the honey bee populations including climate change, destruction of habitat, pesticide usage and pathogens. While multiple factors are contributing to the decline of honey bee populations, one pathogen concerns beekeepers more. This pathogen is Nosema. The fungal infections Nosema cernae and Nosema apis so adversely affect the health of the honey bee that it can result in a complete collapse of the colony. Even when a complete collapse does not occur, an infection of Nosema can still affect the colony by causing poor overwintering as well as poor performance in the spring.
Brassica is important oil seed crop commonly known as rapeseed or mustard whose productivity is limited by several biotic stresses and abiotic (Grover and Pental,2003; Dutta et al.,2005). In agriculture, losses to crop yield due to variety of potential phytophagus insect pests are one of the major causes of lowering in crop productivity. The yield losses in oilseed crop are mainly caused by mustard aphids, Lypaphis erysimi, which is one of the major sap sucking insect in India (Kumar, 1999; Patel et al., 2004; Singh and Sachan, 1994). The damage is mostly due to nymph and adult stages which suck away the plant sap. The insect suck the plant sap during flowering and seed formation which prevents the nutrient flow and fail to produce healthy pods, there by affecting the crop plants and hence in crop productivity as well.
Being systemic, small concentrations of Thiamethoxam are found in both pollen and nectar of seed‐treated crops. Overall, the balance of evidence at present suggests that field‐realistic exposure of bees to neonicotinoids in nectar and pollen of seed‐treated crops is unlikely to cause substantial direct mortality (although exposure to dust released during drilling can cause direct mortality, Marzaro et al. 2011; Tapparo et al.
solani or even by other Alternaria species. Climate change and the environmental conditions play very important role for the symptom development. The application of fungicides is the most common method for the management of early blight to reduce losses caused by it. This also has an effect on the pathogen evolution and which parallelly changes the symptom development process. In the present study we observed that in the north Indian conditions typical concentric rings are now difficult to found in the early blight disease of tomato.
Some GM crops are improbable of spreading beyond their areas of planting. However, some GM species are likely to spread far more (IUCN, The World Conservation Union, 2007). For instance, plants that producing pollens have higher potential to spread far and contaminate nearby plants whereas bright-resistant GM potatoes have minimum risk of contamination because they reproduce via tubers. Besides that, recent study on creeping bent grass which has been developed to be resistant against RoundUp, a glyphosate shown that it can be easily spread to the area where it is not required (IUCN, The World Conservation Union, 2007). There are 2 pathways on how GM contamination can occur, namely gene flow and commingling.