This number signifies the amount of milligrams of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) needed to “saponify one gram of fat” below the conditions quantified. The fats that have low Saponification value is due to the “long chain fatty acids” found in them and they have a comparatively “fewer number of carboxylic functional groups per unit mass of the fat as compared to short chain fatty acids.” Implications and Importance in Biomedical Science Its importance in bio medical; knowledge of saponification is relevant to many technologies and many aspects of everyday life. We can use it for cleaning the equipment, and we can use it in degradation of cell membrane due to their hydrophobic properties, for them we use detergent based molecules to degrade lipid membrane. One end of the cell is hydrophobic and we can degrade DNA by using of detergent based molecules. “They use detergents to disrupt the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.”
Theory: The acid value can be defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free fatty acids present in one gram of fat. It tells about the measure of rancidity as free fatty acids are normally formed by the decomposition of oil glycerides. The acid value is expressed as percent of oleic acid, lauric or palmitic acid. Principle: The determination of acid value is based on the principle of directly titrating the oil in an alcoholic medium against potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide solution. Analytical importance: The value is the relative measure of the amount of fatty acids that have been liberated due to the hydrolysis of the glycerides as a result of action of moisture, temperature and/or lypolytic enzyme lipase.
Pages 96-98 in Chemistry 110 Lab Manual. Wilfrid Laurier University, ON, Canada. Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the level of purity by using the values for melting point and absorbance and chemically synthesizing aspirin by using phosphoric acid as a catalyst. Pure ASA crystals are isolated from the solution with a Hirsch Funnel that was used with a filter. The melting point of the pure ASA crystals were calculated in order to calculate of absorbance.
The purpose of this experiment was to perform a Wittig reaction using two different methods: In method I, 250 mg aldehyde was mixed with 785 mg phosphonium salt in 5 M NaOH solvent. This mixture was stirred for thirty minutes and filter by vacuum filtration for the product. In method 2, 250 mg of aldehyde, 785 mg, benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride, and 380 mg potassium phosphate tribasic were homogenize with a pestle and mortar. Vacuum filtration was also used in this method to attain the product. The products in both methods were used for recrystallization and TLC.
The three trials reacted 27.95 mL, 26.61 mL, and 25.74 mL of potassium permanganate to determine 55.7%, 53.0%, and 51.3% respectively of oxalate in the compound with a 53.3% average. To calculate the empirical formula of the compound, the percent composition of the each piece of the compound needed to be found. A thermogravimetric analysis performed outside the lab determined 11.0% of the compound was water and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy found 11.3% was iron. Potassium accounted for the remaining 24.4% of the compound. The compound’s empirical formula was determined to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O.
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
TLC profiling Ammonia in butanol was the appropriate solvent to use for the column chromatography of food dye. After testing for the appropriate solvent, the set- up for column chromatography was done (Figure 2.). With the use of a clamp, the column was clamped onto an iron stand. A small cotton ball was then pushed in the column until it reached the bottom by using a stirring rod. A small amount of sand was added after the layer of cotton.
Commercial TiO2 P25 was obtained from Evonik. Ultrapure water (18MΩ.cm-1) was used throughout the whole experiments. 2.2. Synthesis of photocatalysts The TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method described below: 3.9 ml of TiCl4 was slowly added into 10 milliliter of absolute ethanol in reaction vesel, this reaction performed under fume hood at 0°C with vigorous stirring due to exothermic reaction,the high volatilityof TiCl4and also therelease of hydrogen chloride. Then, water was added dropwise during the mixing process.
The substrate was hydrolyzed separately using various concentrations (10, 25, and 50 mg/mL) of Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase and papain. The samples were activated with the individual enzyme conditions listed in Table 1. After the hydrolysis process, the SBP were immediately heated at 80°C for 20 min to inactivate the enzyme, followed by centrifugation at 5,000×g for 15 min and collection of the supernatants for further use. DPPH radical scavenging assay The antioxidant activity of SBP was measured with DPPH radicals according to the method of Chantaranothai et al.  Appropriate concentrations of SBP hydrolysate were mixed 1: 4 (v/v) with 200 M DPPH solution in anhydrous methanol for 30 min in the dark.
CdS powder (99.99% purity) was evaporated at about 200°C from a deep narrow mounted molybdenum boat. The glass substrate was cleaned in aquaregia washed in distilled water and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The substrate was kept in a closed box with accuracy to avoid the dust particle on surface. Thin film of Polyaniline have been prepared by vacuum evaporation technique, Polyaniline is usually prepared by redox polymerization of aniline using ammonium perdisulphate, (NH4)2 S2O2 as an oxidant. Distilled aniline (0.02 M) is dissolved in 300 ml of pre-cooled HC1 (l.0M) solution, maintained at 0-50°C.