These cases include Briggs v. Elliot, Brown v. Board of Education, Bulah v. Country School Board of Prince Edward County, and Bolling v. Sharpe. These cases were brought from the jurisdictions of Virginia, Washington D.C., Delaware, South Carolina, and Kansas. No matter where the cases came from, the main point was they were all against the segregation in the public schools. The foundation for these cases was built from the National Association for the Advancement of Color People (NAACP) who consistently worked towards ending racial discrimination. Unfortunately these five court cases all ended in a loss.
Decades ago, children of various races could not go to school together in many locations of the United States. School districts could segregate students, legally, into different schools according to the color of their skin. The law said these separate schools had to be equal. Many schools for children that possessed color were of lesser quality than the schools for white students. To have separate schools for the black and white children became a basic rule in southern society.
Fisher, but they held the the Court of Appeals did not hold the University’s admission policies to a standard of strict scrutiny so the judgement was incorrect. In previous judicial precedent in cases dealing with minority admissions, the Court has held that they are reviewable under the fourteenth amendment, these such cases must be held to a standard of strict scrutiny to determine whether the policies are precisely tailored to serve a compelling governmental interest. If the policy does not meet this standard, then race can not be considered in any admissions process. The Court stated the it was the job of the reviewing court to verify that the University policy in question was necessary to achieve a more diverse student body and the any race-neutral alternative would not achieve the same level of diversity.The Supreme Court said the lower courts did not conduct a sufficient strict scrutiny examination in this case. Justice Ruth Ginsburg wrote the dissenting opinion in which she argued the the University treats race as merely one factor in the overall decision to admit a student, which is permissible under previous judicial precedent.
There was one student at the University of Oklahoma that was treated with disrespect and inferiority because of how he looked and how he acted. The poor conditions for blacks in schools under the “Separate but equal” doctrine caused the NAACP to file 5 different cases that took out segregation from schools and the Supreme Court’s decision created history. The conditions for black students were horrible and unsanitary. The ¨Separate but Equal¨ doctrine was created in 1896 to keep blacks and whites away from each other (Somervill 28). This was to keep them ¨Equal¨ but really did not because all of the black areas were not kept in good condition and the white´s was.
The “Plessy V. Ferguson” case is a very important case in U.S. history and U.S. civil rights, as it legalized segregation for decades. Homer Plessy appeared to a white man living a Louisiana, but he was ⅛ black, which was considered black in Louisiana. When Plessy tried to board a “whites only” railroad car in protest of Louisiana's “Separate Car Act” that legally separated train cars, he was arrested when he refused to move to colored car on the train. Once the case went through both district and state courts, it moved up to the U.S. Supreme Court where Plessy and his attorney argued that the law ostracized the colored people from the white, which would be unconstitutional. This was known as the “Plessy V. Ferguson” case.
The inability to vote was exactly what led to the creation of the United States, and allowing another population to vote is undoubtedly a turning point in the country’s history. When looking at history in America, many would not be proud of the maltreatment this country has placed on the black man. But during the 50s and 60s, African Americans were on the path to being seen as truly equal to white citizens. The year 1954 brought the end to segregation, 1964 brought an end to discrimination, and 1965 brought a start to representation. All three of these national laws and rulings provided a great impact on the civil rights movement, and can be seen
Before this case, people of the black community couldn 't go to college and they would settle for inferior. They weren 't even allowed to be interviewed for college as they were viewed as inferior as the titles they carried. Allan Bakke wanted to go medical school, but that was pretty difficult considering they didn 't even begin to consider letting him in. He filed a suit after his shocking revelation and the Supreme Court ordered the college to let him in, after which the college appealed to the court. The court accepted and the verdict came to this:" In Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court ruled that a university 's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school 's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances."
These three civil court cases were not the only experiences that influenced the Civil Rights Movement, yet they were important because they were giving more reasons and proof of why desegregation needed to be enacted: Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, Loving v. Virginia. White people do not have the right to decide whether African Americans are allowed to live in their neighborhood, as shown in the case Shelley v. Kraemer. Also, white people are not allowed to segregate certain schools so that African Americans can not go to them or decide that African Americans can not marry white people, such as in the cases Brown v. Board of Education and Loving v. Virginia. All of these cases are supported by the 14th amendment, which guarantees that all people are equal. “This nation was founded by men of many nations and backgrounds.
Currently in the twentieth century, many states view equality as a fundamental important principle. It has been seen as so important to such an extent that some countries have enshrined it their constitutions. However, for many years, across the globe, people of color were not judged by merit but by the color of their skin. This essay aims to the answer the question whether there was any possibility for Tom Robison to receive a fair trial. I assert that it was impossible for Tom to receive a fair trial due to the prejudice in Maycomb.
Although these events happened segregation still continued. In 1957 nine African American children were enrolled to Central High School but the white people tried to not let them in. The Governor of Arkansas was also involved in not letting these kids into the school. This event led to President Dwight Eisenhower to send in troops to make sure that the nine students stayed there for the rest of the school year. In the year 1950 the census were for the first time blacks/ Negros were counted into the census.
Plessy vs Ferguson was a controversial case which came up with the phrase "separate but equal." The case started when Louisiana tried to establish a law that would segregate blacks and white on trains like many states had done. However the black community in New Orleans did not like it however the state legislature approved the law even though there were blacks in the legislature. In 1892 a man named Homer Plessy sat in the white compartment of a train and was kicked off the train by the conductor. Later, lawyer named Albion Tourgee argued that the law was unconstitutional and took it to Supreme Court where the Supreme Court rejected it and ruled in the favor of the law.
By 1950, a legal team headed by Thurgood Marshall, had won a multitude of cases related to higher education. The winnings of these cases, he realized, all provided a good foundation that could go to overturning the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling, where it was ruled that segregation in public facilities was separate but equal. From there on, Marshall searched for appropriate cases to present to the U.S. Supreme Court. He found a lawsuit in Kansas where eight families were opposed to a local school board that would not accept African American children to attend school there. On February 28, 1951, Marshall filed a class action lawsuit against the Board of Education of
White people were getting worried that African-Americans would overthrow the government because of their rapid growth in population. Soon after, the Alabama government dictated that only the votes of white people would count. After that happened many African-Americans rioted against the government and white owned businesses. When that happened a man named Professor Gomillion filed suit against the mayor and other high officials saying it was against the 14th Amendment. When the suit reached Judge Frank Johnson he dismissed the case saying the state had the rights to draw a boundary of what he could accept, but after he dismissed the case it had reached the Court of Appeals and the ruling was upheld.
This decision being made was largely due to the young black student’s fierce protest against the injustice. In early 1951, many black virginian students protested against the injustice of the “separate but equal” mentality of the law. They revolted against the poor conditions common amongst black schools and the segregated educational system in general. Though the NAACP attempted to convince the protesters to conceal their protests, the relentlessness of the students showed through and the NAACP eventually joined the fight by challenging the system in a series of five cases. The Supreme Court ruled in their favor stating, "segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children.