The miscibility of ionic liquids with water or organic solvents varies with side chain lengths on the cation and with choice of anion. They can be functionalized to act as acids, bases or ligands, and have been used as precursor salts in the preparation of stable carbenes. Because of their distinctive properties, ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention in many fields, including organic chemistry, electrochemistry, catalysis, physical chemistry, and engineering; see for instance magnetic ionic
Introduction I have been using milk powder daily in my morning tea and I find it annoying when I go through the whole process of making my tea just to realize the result is globs of unmixed milk powder. I decided to use a designed experiment in Minitab to help me reduce the residue of unmixed milk powder, and find the optimal settings of my input factors to produce a smooth and a creamy tea. Choosing Input Factors for the Experiment Because I am using premade milk powder, I decided to use two brands for the experiment. For this project, I’ll call the brands A and B. I suspect the temperature and mixing time to be the ones that impact the residue of unmixed milk powder. Therefore, the factors/inputs that I decided to use for the experiment are: 1.
Loads on the rock will affect the core’s permeability to fluids, so it is important to duplicate them during testing. The injection pressure at the core face is measured using a pressure transducer and the gas flow rate is measured using a precision mass flow meter. An excel spreadsheet calculation template allows for calculation of gas
5.3 Boundary conditions Boundary conditions used for this study were mostly considered as static in nature. For the inlet and outlet boundary conditions the pressure and temperature were considered as static. The operating pressure will be maintained at 1.33 atm and for outlet static pressure has specified as 1.15 bar. No slip boundary condition was applied on all wall surfaces. A high turbulence intensity of 10 % flow have been assumed for the inlet.
1.2 Stress strain relation for time-dependent fluids 1.1.3 Viscoelastic fluids Substances exhibiting characteristics of both ideal fluids and elastic solids and showing partial elastic recovery after deformation; These are categorizedas ‘visco-elastic fluids’, which are obtain by addition of small quantities of a high-molecular-weight polymer to a solvent result in a viscoelastic fluid,having both viscous and elastic properties. 1.2 Properties of non-Newtonian fluids The non-Newtonian fluid properties with detailed explanation and examples are as shown in the table 1.1 the table gives details about the changes of viscosity property for different types of non-Newtonian fluids along with examples. TABLE 1.1 Properties of non-Newtonian fluids Type of the fluid Properties Examples Generalized Newtonian fluids Viscosity is constant. Stress depends on normal and shear strain rates and also the pressure applied on it Blood plasma, custard, water Shear thinning (pseudo-plastic) Apparent viscositydecreases with increased stress Nail polish, whipped cream, ketchup, molasses, syrups, paper pulp in water Shear thickening (dilatant) Apparent viscosityincreases with increased stress Suspensions of corn starch in water, sand in
Mass flow rate of liquid is an important parameter to be measured and controlled in a process industry. In the present paper, the design of a PC based mass flow indicator has been studied using a well known temperature sensing IC AD590. The temperature sensing IC AD590 has been used as a flow sensing element and the effect of fluid temperature has been eliminated by using four identical IC units. Four IC units are connected in the differential mode. The output of the differential circuit is send to optoisolator circuit through a signal conditioner circuit.
Problems related to reflection of plane waves under the effects of initial stress, magnetic field and voids in homogenous and isotropic free surface have applications in many fields like Geophysics, Geology, Optics, Earthquake engineering and geography. Abd-Alla and AlDawy  investigated the reflection phenomena of SV Waves in a generalized thermo elastic medium. Ibrahim et al.  discussed the effects of voids and rotation on P wave in a thermoelastic half-space under Green-Naghdi theory. Nunziato and Cowin  proposed a nonlinear theory of elastic materials with voids.
Abstract: The effect of thermal and hydrodynamics boundary conditions on electroconvection in saturated porous medium with temperature dependent viscosity (TDV) has been studied in the present paper. Thermal boundary conditions are considered at either at constant temperature or at fixed heat flux of lower surface, while the upper surface is considered to be general convective-radiative exchange. The electrohydrodynamic conditions are included namely, (i) both rigid surfaces (R-R), (ii) lower-rigid and upper-free (R-F), (iii) lower and upper free surfaces (F-F). The eigenvalue problem is computed numerically the Galerkin weighted residual method. It is found that the criticalthermal or electric Rayleigh number making the onset of electroconvection is greatest for the thermal boundary condition of fixed temperature and least for fixed heat flux condition.
From the coefficient of friction, the relationship between the boundary coefficient of friction of solute and its solution concentration were acclimated to obtain the adsorption isotherms. The friction-derived adsorption results for each vegetable oils are shown in graph
Each material has a characteristic pattern of stress and strain. A standard specimen is deformed, usually to fracture with a gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially along the long axis of a specimen. Most of the tension tests for metals are conducted according to the ASTM Standard E 8 and E 8M, “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials”. HOOKE’S LAW For most tensile testing of materials, you will notice that in the initial portion of the test, the relationship between the applied force or load and the elongation the specimen exhibits is linear. In this linear region, the line obeys the relationship defined as