Surface Water Pollution Analysis

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1. Introduction
The pollution of surface water has brought so much frustration over the past years nationally and globally. Surface water pollution occurs when the quality of water degrade to an extent that it becomes uneasy to use due to the entering of harmful substances into the water systems. When surface water is polluted the environment is affected as a whole. Aquatic species such as plants and fish are threatened by poor water conditions (Botkin, D.B., 2014).
Like any other form of pollution surface water pollution is influenced by two different sources named as point and non-point sources. Point sources of water pollution are easy to identify, monitor and control since they come from a specific location. Examples of point sources include
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We all need clean water for domestic use, drinking and swimming. The main problem that accompanies the issue of polluted water is that people are exposed to infectious diseases such as water bone and diarrhea. The world health organization estimates that more than 3 million people die every year due to infectious diseases caused by drinking polluted water. The majority of people being affected are young people of age younger than 5 years (Miller, G.T.).
Surface water pollution can be solved by trying to reduce the sources as much as possible and by also treating the water to remove the pollutants from the water. On the agricultural point of view if farmers do not try to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers the problem is far from being solved because agriculture is the leading source of water
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Even with the attempt to try and control industrial and sewage discharges from entering into the bodies of water, the water quality may still not reach its desired state. The reason for this may be due to the diffuse pollution caused by urban runoff and agriculture. The root of this problem is the inability to identify the sources. Geographical information system is used in the meantime to identify non-point sources and their relationship to land use. GIS is used to hold and relate data associated with land use (Helmer, R., 1991).
Table 1: Classes of non-point sources
1. Agriculture pollutants Animal feedlots Irrigation Cultivation Pastures Dairy farming Orchards Aquaculture
Runoff from all categories of agriculture leading to surface water pollution. Vegetable handling, especially washing in polluted surface waters in many developing countries, leads to contamination of food supplies. Growth of aquaculture is becoming a major polluting activity in many countries. Irrigation return flows carry salts,
Phosphorus, nitrogen, metals, pathogens, sediment, pesticides, salt, BOD1, trace elements (e.g. selenium).
nutrients and pesticides. Tile drainage rapidly carries leachates such as nitrogen to surface waters.
Increased runoff from disturbed land. Most damaging is forest clearing for urbanization.

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