By doing so, the physical asset account, which is the land, is being utilized properly. In the case of monetary accounts, it is being related to prices and values. In traditional accounting, there is the term “depreciation” while in environmental accounting there is environmental degradation. Environmental assets that are being degraded may lose its contribution to sustainability. Companies and enterprises should “green” their assets because by doing so, they can help increase sustainability and help reduce the destruction of the
CDM and Carbon trading are the two mechanisms designed under this protocol are the opportunities for these countries to restructure their power sector to be sustainable and renewable based at the cost of developed nations. • There are two mechanism in Kyoto protocol Clean development mechanism: the CDM allows a country to implement projects that reduce or remove emission in developing countries and to earn certified emission credits. The CDM is ment to stimulate sustainable development and emission reductions in developing countries, while giving industrializing countries some economic flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction or limitations targets. Carbon trading: This approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentive for achieving reductions in the emission of pollutants. • It allows developed countries to offset their emission of carbon dioxide by investing in reforestation and clean energy.
(Young et. al, 2010) Gupta S. et al (2009) study that consumers’ who are willing to pay the premium price of products that are environmentally friendly are the ones who recycle, reduce household energy consumption, and segregate waste so as not to pollute the environment. This behavior is the basic foundation in forming the consumers’ attitudes as ‘green buying behavior’. The concept of environmental awareness as one of the predictors in green buying first appeared in 1968 in the United States. It was the scholar Roth who recommended environmental literacy as the model of environmental awareness.
called sustainability. Sustainability makes the people to be able to reduce/control the effects on planet, save resources, save money, protect plants, lands, animals and humans. It is also help our future generations by ensure the safety survival for them Sustainability can describe so many points that can make our life better: 1. Mixing the ecology and economy together in life structure. 2.
Land, forest, and wetlands are often good examples of sustainability because they remain to diverse and produce over time. Sustainability has so much impact on our society today. With just as something so tiny, as in recycling, sustainability can better this planet, the animals, nature, and our environment. This world isn’t going to be a world if we don’t understand the sustainability of it. Before too long, if we aren’t careful we won’t have as many sources that we have now.
Since the beginning of mankind on earth Building construction has had very big direct and indirect impacts on the environment, on society, and the economy. The field of sustainable design has got the aim of balancing the needs of these areas by method of creating designs that helps environment society and economy. The main goals of sustainable design are to reduce wasting of critical resources like energy, water, land, and raw materials; prevent environmental facilities and infrastructure from making the environment worse in their life cycle; and create environments that are livable, comfortable, safe, and productive. As a normal result of human-beings live their lives there,buildings use resources (energy, water, raw materials. ), produce
patterns that are resource and energy efficient, low-carbon and low waste, non-polluting and safe, and which produce products that are responsibly managed throughout their life cycle. The Green Industry agenda covers the greening of industries, under which all industries continuously improve their resource productivity and environmental performance. It also aims to create green industries, that deliver environmental goods and services industrially, including, for example, waste management and recycling services, renewable energy technologies, and environmental analytic and advisory services”. Outcome document of Rio+20 Conference “The future we want”(UN 2012) considers “green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication as one of the important tools available for achieving sustainable development and that it could provide options for policy making but should not be a rigid set of rules”. It is clear that all these initiatives consolidate economic, environmental and social priorities of the sustainable development and are directed to solve its problems.
(2009), this is useful because economic value of any resource-environment system lies in the contribution of its ecosystem services and functions to human well-being there are three main concepts. that must be identified the private costs and benefits versus the environmental social costs and gains, the environmental social costs and gains are usually distributed throughout society, rather than being paid or accrued directly to the company or organization that is undertaking a project. The environmental social costs become externalities; they must considered during decision making processes to ensure greatest efficiency. The outcome of carbon valuation (maximizing costs minus benefits) will depend on what is included in the categories of costs and benefits, valuation each of the goods and services, discount rate(s) used, risks and uncertainty undertaken and the Choice of “prices”: Current/real/shadow. In calculating costs and outputs, the varying amounts of the good or service results in a different price (or willingness to pay).
To ensure development could apply sustainable approach, the process of development should fulfill at least three criteria of Sustainable Development: Environmentally sound, Economically Productive, and Socially Just. In this context, development progress should not only improving the economic condition of the people where they have economic activity that generate income (productive). It should also achieve equal distribution among people at the society by reducing income disparities (Socially Just), and at the same time also preserving the environment and the needs for future generations. (environmentally sound). The report of IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting in 2006 concluded that sustainable development is a concept by which economic factors are considered together with social factors and environment in the development theory and practices (Cf.
Renewable energy could be able to predict for future sustainable developments and poverty reduction in Myanmar. Therefore, Myanmar is searching some types of renewable energy based on energy security, economic efficiency, environment and safety concern, especially on wind, solar, biomass, bio-fuel, biogases and hydro power. In this paper, I would like to express about how Myanmar secures the purchase of renewable energy especially in biofuel, biogas and mini hidro power because, they are more reasonable and flexible with country’s current situation. It is effective way for economic, enviromental and social benefits for rural people including improved domestic energy security, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, employment generation, life cycle, cost-benefit, and poverty reduction in Myanmar. Furthermore, I would like to explain about how important of technology assistance, training and education are essential needs for using method of renewable energy.