Sustainable Agriculture: An Alternative Method For Sustainable Agriculture

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Sustainable agriculture is an alternative method for solving basic and applied issues associated to food production in an ecological way (Lal, 2008). It tackles many serious problems that affect the global economy and food production such as high energy costs, declining petroleum reserves, soil erosion, food security, and risks to organism’s habitats and human health (Reganold et al., 1990). In the late 20th century, environmentalists, agricultural scientists and small farmers seen the devastating effect farming was causing to water and soil, which are the key components to agricultural production. This prompted them to explore better ways to farm (Earles, 2005). The use of fertilisers to sustain high- yield agriculture, which contains many different nutrients such as phosphorus, was observed. Phosphorus is an important nutrient that plants require for all the major developmental and reproduction processes. The level of phosphate that can be assimilated by plants is insignificant in nature and agricultural ecosystems, therefore when a fertilizer containing phosphate is applied in soils; it is swiftly immobilized due to microbial activity and fixation. Consequently, plants only use approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, contributing to water bodies being enriched with nutrients that cause eutrophication and toxic algal blooms (Correll, 1998).Current developments in the understanding of mechanisms in which species acclimate to low-phosphate

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