“When the rice gets sick, I am sad too.” In an article for Public Radio International, reporter Christopher Johnson tells the story of a 63 year old Vietnamese rice farmer. Hai Thach, who lives in the Soc Trang Province of Vietnam, notices that his once thriving rice field has been affected by saline intrusion, or the presence of salt in the water and soil in the area. Thach, along with other rice farmers in the province, rely heavily on their rice crops not only to feed their families, but as a source of income (Johnson). Although Vietnam’s carbon footprint is miniscule compared to those of countries like the United States and China, its farmers and citizens are being negatively impacted by the effects of climate change- an environmental phenomenon being caused and exacerbated by the actions of developed countries. Countries that are dependent solely on their agricultural industries for profit and global trade will be disproportionately affected by climate change, primarily its effects on sea levels.
How Pollution Affects the Ocean and Marine Animals Existence on Earth relies on the resources that the Ocean provides us. The Ocean has an incredibly large impact on our lives, as it makes up two thirds of our planet. In addition, oceans help trees to flourish so people may breathe; create nourishment for people and wildlife; and supply the water people drink. Oceans and their marine animals also help absorb up to 80% of the carbon from atmosphere, and without it we would die from the exposure of the carbons harmful effects on the planet. Unfortunately our oceans are suffering from many types of pollutants that are prominent in our environment.
This is because of the inherent unpredictability of changes in climate and the links that implicate fishery and aquaculture. The impacts on fisheries are due to a variety of direct and indirect effects of a number of physical and chemical factors, which include temperature, winds, vertical mixing, salinity, oxygen, pH and others. Direct effects include reduced precipitation and greater evaporation, while indirect effect is when more water is used for irrigation to offset reduce precipitation. These direct and indirect effects contribute in the changes of distribution, productivity and extinction. Global warming may have even greater repercussion for marine ecosystems than for terrestrial ecosystems (found on landforms) because temperature influences water column stability, nutrient enrichment, and the degree of new production, thus, the abundance, size composition and
Part of the problem with ocean acidification is human activity. Ever since the industrial revolution commenced, around one third of the carbon dioxide released by human interference has been absorbed by the ocean, which is one of the reasons of the drastic change in climate as well. Without the ocean absorbing carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide n the atmosphere would be drastically higher, with possibly increasing the levels of climate change.The point of the research is to see how will the pH affect the organisms in the marine ecosystem and does carbonation affect an organism’s mass and form. Many organisms that are part of the marine food chain are going to be affected by ocean acidification due the levels of acidity deteriorating the calcium carbonate within the animal. It turns out
(S. Viederman, New York) The more society learns to sustain, the better. The basic needs of its members will be satisfied without depleting resources now and therefore degrading them for others later. This will encourage sustainable communities within societies, meaning the people want to live and in that specific environment now and also in the future. Benefitting not only society as a whole but the economy too by creating long term jobs for many. These members of the community are sensitive and caring to their environment brining out the best in it.
People are not only affected by the ocean, the ocean is also affected greatly by people. Firstly, human development, such as the construction of a river or a dam, can change the ocean geologically. The reason behind this is that the Earth’s ocean is all connected with multiple basins. Secondly, human activities, such as diving, can affect the ocean through the unnatural invasion of the marine environment without proper knowledge of what to do. Thirdly, the ocean and its inhabitants are greatly affected by marine pollution.
Type IV areas experience even rainfall all year. Climate change planning and projections are being done by government units with most research done by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services (PAGASA). Data collected from 1951 to 2009 were used in establishing climate trends. Projections for 2020 and 2050 were done. Findings indicate that there will be an increase of 0.65ºC in the mean annual temperature ranging from 0.1ºC and 0.35ºC.
This article offers an overview of economic approaches to the concept of sustainable development. Two different economic approaches to sustainability are contrasted: neoclassical environmental economics and ecological economics. Key issues which are identified include weak versus strong sustainability, commensurability versus incommensurability, and ethical neutrality versus acceptance of different values. The Concept of Sustainable Development Traditional neoclassical economics analyses the process of price formation by considering the economy as a closed system. While classical economists like Malthus, Ricardo, Mill, and Marx saw economic activity as bounded by the environment, neoclassical theory essentially ignored this reality until the
Sustainable development occurs when a society is able to provide all its needs not only for the present but also for its future. It advocates people make an effort which doesn’t only concern for the present but also for the future. Sustainable development doesn’t only include stability on people’s basic needs such as food, water, shelter, etc. but also sustainability in economic growth, eradicating inequalities, social development and such. A society is said to be environmentally sustainable if it’s able to satisfy the basic needs of its people while not compromising its resources which are supposed to be reserved for future needs.
Country has faced severe floods in the recent and previous years which dented the slowly building economy and already struggling agriculture. World Bank has reported climate change impacts on Pakistan which are depicted in given table. Data given in Table 1 clearly narrates how severely climate change and its consequential activities have damaged country, both in the form of losses in human assets and financial assets during particular period. Keeping all this in view, proposed research is designed to assess the social and agro-economic resilience in farming community in regards to adaptation of climate change. Study primarily focuses on the responses of farmers regarding impact of climate change on their agro-economic life.