Introduction The Tang dynasty is regarded as the Gold Age of Chinese history, and it is also considered as a cosmopolitan empire, which was open to various cultures and intertwined with different religions and people. However, some scholars argue that the cosmopolitan Tang empire had gone after the rebellion of An Lushan (755-763). Instead, the Tang intellectuals had growing xenophobia and were cautious with foreigners and foreign culture. However, is it a myth or reality? This paper will try to reconstruct the historical background regarding the “xenophobia” and the frontier poems in Tang and the rhetorical use of Non-Chinese in Chinese texts during the mid-imperial China.
Bare survival was the major struggle for many at the bottom of the society and injustice was more than common. And contrary to many people’s expectations, the Republic of China did not dramatically change the situation. Although modern democratic political institutions were introduced, the regime was highly corrupted and incompetent in consolidating power or stabilizing economy. In F arewell My Concubine, we see undisciplined soldiers in opera house, easily bribed judge and acquittal based on a general’s short notice instead of sound evidence. Changes did happen, but there was also remarkable consistency in people’s
Chinese mythology has shaped the way that china is today. Although some may say that since Chinese culture is so old, Myths are useless, fake, stories; but it is clear that Chinese mythology did influence the cultures belief and was the base of many religions. Chinese Mythology has altered china’s culture and beliefs throughout the years because of the religions, lifestyle, and political view from mythology. The importance of religion in China is what keeps the ancient countries culture unforgotten, but the mythology in China is what shaped those cultures. According to Living Myths, about Chinese Mythology “Much Chinese mythology is based on animism, which sees the land itself as alive.
Theater, Hunting, Art all was contributed but not favored by china. 2. Why did the Mongols distrust the Confucian scholar-officials in China? The Mongol kings were a bit suspicious of the Confucian scholars of China because they showed a different way of life for China. Mongols already put out a path in life and handled themselves in china.
With the fall of the Han dynasty, political disorder prevailed due to the change from Han’s organized and uniform reign, a traditional government leading by Confucian values. With a new dynasty rising and the spread of Buddhism, China started disuniting. As a result, many people believed that the values the Chinese society was being led by were deficient and believed Buddhism would restore social and political order. First, Chinese aristocrats and high officials believed that there were many external factors that were provoking many Chinese, especially in rural areas towards different ideals and behaviors specially against their government. This was achieved through trade, invasions etc (Doc 2).
Comparisons between ancient Greek and Chinese science 2.1. Similarities Ancient philosophers in Greece and China had begun to think about the world and attempted to explain some phenomena they observed, however, their theories were mainly based on the observation and their thoughts, which led to inaccuracy. Plato pointed out that sense experiences could be misleading but his solution to this problem was unsatisfying. He believed the only method to acquire true knowledge was by reasoning and remembering which lacked evidence to back up. As for Aristotle, he was opposed of controlled experimentation because he thought the constraints prevented the nature of objects from being revealed, which led to mistakes in his theory in our perspectives.
In reality, raids mainly functioned as a crucial negotiation device for the nomads rather than as a means of fulfilling what the nomads lacked, especially in relation to China. Even though China was a considerably larger nation with an enormous army for most of history, the nomadic tribes managed to maintain their standing through their calvary’s raiding skills, demonstrating their might and retaining autonomy. For example, in Shi Ji, we see that the Xiongnu and Han arranged peace treaties in which Xiongnu received “tributary items” — such as silk, cloth, and grain — from Han with a promise to stop the raids against Han as an exchange. In addition, Jagchid and Symons demonstrate that what the nomads wanted to gain from their trade with China, their best known and most “advanced” neighbor, was mainly luxury goods in exchange for horses, a product unique to the nomads. The horses from the steppes played a vital part in Chinese military defense.
Zong accused that Danone had designed a trap in the JV agreement to win the control of both Wahaha Bbrand and the JV. Therefore, longterm of cooperation between these two parties did not build on more trust. In China, the legal basis through the business operations was uncertain, most of the businesses relied on trust which could be differentiate with the western contract based structure.In 1999,Danone and Wahaha applied an exclusive license agreement for the
It is these pillars that offers the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) legitimacy. If the implementation of an economic policy fails it further deepens social instability. The same can be said if a campaign fails to assert nationalism. Not only does it highlight the regimes advantages and disadvantages, it also has the potential for creating an environment for political and social unrest. The regime is a continuous circle of contradictions failing to create a fairer society for its people by allowing development gaps to increase.
At that period of time, Hong Kong was used as a free port for the trade in China only. Like the other colonies, the social needs of the people were neglected and the policies implemented were out of the benefit of the British government instead of the local interest. Local community and the charitable organisations were the major sources of welfare. Xu (1993) analysis that the population growth in Kong Kong in 1841to 1941 was a mechanical increase. The population was mostly the new immigrants from the mainland China owing to the labour shortage for economic development in Hong Kong and the labour surplus in China.