From plant sources, the enzyme is present in tannin rich vegetables mainly in their fruits, leaves, branches and barks of trees like konnam, mirobolano and badul . Many fungal species have been proved for its ability to produce tannase that have higher enzyme activity compared to bacterial and yeast tannase. The most important source to obtain the enzyme is by microbial way, because the produced enzymes are more stable than similar ones obtained from other sources . In this study, the kinetics of tannase production using A.flavus with redgram husk was studied and various unstructured kinetic models were used to characterize the fermentation
The average seed germination count at seven days recorded at three for Control, and four Pre-soaked shown in Table1. In comparison, Table 2 shows that group one had a change in the ratio of Control at four versus Pre-soaked at ten. The number of Control germinated seeds changed to 4, and the Pre-soaked grew to ten. Group four increased from zero to ten Control seeds that germinated and four Pre-soaked. There was an average of 9 seeds that germinated for the Control and 9.67 for
One ml suitable dilution of the mixer solution was inoculated in TCBS agar media after at subsequent intervals of 4 hour up to 12hour. This procedure was repeated twice. Test solution of V. harveyi; without probiotic was also inoculated in TCBS agar media at 0 hour, 4th hour, 8th hour and 12th hour subsequently. All the inoculated TCBS agar plates were incubated at 370 C for 48 hrs. Standard plate count was done after
At ph 6.5 nearly 94.3% as(iii) and 65.3% as(v) was removed in first 12 hours of removal process but there adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 72 hours which gave approx. 100 % removal of as. This study also shows that if dose of NZVI/AC applied increases from 0.1 to 3 g/l then as removal of arsenate and arsenate increase from 68 and 57 % to 100 %. As removal by nzvi/ac is fallen from pH 3 to pH 12 whereas the removal of as from arsenate solution increases from pH3 to 6.5 and decreases rapidly below pH 9. The two line meet at pH 4.5. above this pH value as removal eff was much more for arsenate.
But after three weeks after EM application, treatment 1 contains the highest bacterial count followed by treatment 3 and treatment 2, respectively. In addition, it can be seen in the table 1 that treatment 1 increases in its bacterial count one day after EM application due to the addition of bacteria from the EM, however, bacterial count of treatment 1 decreases two weeks after EM application. The bacterial count increases again three weeks after EM application. The effectiveness of EM to decrease bacterial count can be noted up to two weeks after EM application. Increase of bacterial count were registered one day after EM application in treatment 2 but the bacterial count decreases until three weeks after EM application.
5.2.1. Results and discussions of 2nd experiment. (Co-digestion of water Hyacinth with cow-dung). The generation of the biogas from the batch reactor is measured daily with the help of a water displacement method. The biogas production for a period of 32 days was calculated.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOLOGY 1.0 Plant extraction of Physalis minima 1.1 Preparation of fresh sample extract Physalis minima L. at maturity state was harvested from Kepala Batas, identified and washed with a distilled water. The dried specimen was submitted to the USM Herbarium for future reference. About 200 g weight of leaves were blended finely with 300 mL distilled water using a blender until become a mixture with a small size of leaves. The water mixture of leaves were macerated with 1200 mL methanol and shaken continuously at 250 rpm for 24 hours. The mixtures was filtered with Whatman #1 filter paper and the filtrate was used to repeat the extraction for another two times.
Plant tissue culture offers the best methodology through micropropagation of sugarcane for quality and phytosanitary planting material at a faster rate in a shorter period. Tissue culture can increase the propagation potential by 20-35 times (Snyman et al., 2006). About 18, 520 plants, produced from a single shoot through micropropagation, were required as compared to 88 quintal of cane seed in conventional methods for planting in an area of one hectare. Thus, Multiplication ratio was 100-150 times using tissue culture plants as compared to 11-12 using conventional cane setts, leading to drastic reduction in seed cane requirement (Sandhu et al., 2009). Kuar and Sandhu (2014) showed the shoot multiplication rates were ranged from 4 to 25 fold in CoPb 91 and CoJ 83 cultivars, respectively and the complete plantlets were produced in 157 days with 97 percent survival rate.
The volume of glycerol = 931mL The density of glycerol = 1.26 g/mL Table 1: Shows the volume of biodiesel after every wash with water. Wash No. Water Used (mL) Biodiesel (mL) 1 933 567 2 989 511 3 1132 368 % Yield= (Actual Yield)/(Theoretical Yield)×100=(368 mL)/(2000 mL)×1000=18.4 % An 18.4 % yield means that 368 g of biodiesel was obtained from 2000mL of vegetable oil (1838 g). m_glycerol=pV=(1.26 g/mL)(931mL)=1173g A mass of 1173 g of glycerol was obtained from 2000mL of vegetable oil (1838 g). Table 2: Shows the appearance of the effluent after every wash. Wash No.
5 grams of fine powder was taken in 100 ml of (70% ethanol : 30% water) and stirred for 4 days. The extract was filtered through Whatman No 1 filter paper and supernatant collected was stored at 40C for further nanoparticles synthesis process. Comparision of Magnesium Oxide nanoparticles synthesis by green and chemical routes : Chemical synthesis: MgCl2 hexahydrate (50mM) and NaOH (2M) solutions were prepared using deionised water from millipore water purification system. Precipitation was induced by drop-wise addition of NaOH into the MgCl2 hexahydrate solution under continuous stirring for few minutes. The precipitated solution contains Mg(OH)2 which acts as precursor of MgO was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10minutes and washed with 70% ethanol to remove impurities and pellet form was calcinated at 100-3000C to get the powder form of MgO.The