This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
2 protons are released into the thylakoid space through the splitting of a hydrogen molecule. The cytochrome complex uses the energy it gains from the electrons from PSII to pump protons in the thylakoid space. This then creates a concentration gradient of protons in the thylakoid space. Since protons are released through photolysis and are pumped in through the cytochrome complex, a concentration gradient is formed. To achieve equilibrium protons would tend to go out through the ATP synthase.
Introduction:- In organic chemistry the substitution reactions is the most important reactions, especially Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions where nucleophile attacks positive charge or partially positive charge As it does so, it replaces a weaker nucleophile which then becomes a leaving group. The remaining positive or partially positive atom becomes an electrophile. The general form of the reaction is: Nuc: + R-LG → R-Nuc + LG: The electron pair (:) from the nucleophile (Nuc :) attacks the substrate (R-LG) forming a new covalent bond Nuc-R-LG.
The bond that forms water molecules is called a hydrogen bond. It takes the positively charged hydrogen from water and bonds it with the negative charge of the oxygen in another water molecule. This may create a weaker bond than a covalent bond but it is strong enough to affect the atoms involved. Hydrogen bonds help determine the three dimensional shape of the molecules.
The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster. Our
When tin chloride is added to the solution, Sn2+ took away positive charged ions; Fe3+ to Fe2+ (2Fe3+(aq) + Sn2+(aq) → 2Fe2+(aq) + Sn4+(aq)). This took away Fe3+ from the solution, causing the equilibrium to change to the reactants to balance the concentration of Fe2+. The solution turned a lighter color to increased rate of the reverse reaction. When AgNO3 was added to the solution, the silver nitrate broke down into Ag+ and
This reaction was able to happen during designated lab time due to the fact that a phenol was used. Phenols or more reactive than unsubstitued benzene rings due to the presence of the alcohol on the benzene ring. The alcohol is considered an activating group due to the oxygen’s ability to donate its lone pairs into the benzene ring thus giving it more electrons and thus making it more nucleophilic and more likely to react with the introduced electrophilic species. As aforementioned, there are various products formed in this reaction the two major products formed though are the ortho and para products. It is debatable which product is more prominent due to steric reasons and the capability of each product to conduct in hydrogen bonding.
Tonicity is the ability of an extracellular solution to make water move into or out of the cell by osmosis. A solution’s tonicity is also related to its osmolarity. Hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic are three terms used to compare osmolarity. Hypertonic is when water exits the cell, leaving a higher solute concentration. Hypertonic is when water enters the cell, and
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the amount of calories a person burns during rest. Theoretically, this is the amount of fat or carbohydrates an individual uses for normal functioning without physical exertion. To calculate this, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) is used, which is the relationship between CO2 released and O2 consumed at the lungs during steady state. When the ratio is close to .7, the individual is likely at rest and utilizing only fat. If the ratio is close to 1.0, the subject is most likely in extreme exercise and utilizing only carbohydrates.
A five carbon sugar is reduced to a four carbon sugar. In step five Succlnyl-CoA is converted into Succinate. There is a strong negative standard of free energy from the hydrolysis. In the next step the energy that is released in breaking this bond is used to drive the synthesis of phosphoanhydrice used to create GTP nad ATP.
1: Introduction to a hydrate. What is a hydrate? Why is it called a hydrate? A hydrate is a compound (usually crystalline) where water molecules are chemically bonded to another compound or an element. This is called a hydrate because the substance is hydrated.
When CO2 reacts with water molecules, it produces carbonic acid (H2CO3). Hydrogen ions (H+) detach from carbonic acid, leaving bicarbonate molecules (HCO3-) free to float. High amounts of CO2 dissolving in the oceans results in a higher concentration of the free hydrogen ions, reducing the pH of the water and creating a more acidic solution. The chemical equation of carbon dioxide and water is as follows: CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+ Shelled marine life like oysters, crabs, and shrimp rely on carbonate (CO3-2) present in the water, to bind with calcium ions (CA+2) to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The equation is as follows: