The DVR primarily responsible for restoring the quality of voltage delivered to the end user when the voltage from the source is not appropriate to be used for sensitive loads. Usage of DVR enables consumers to isolate and protect themselves from transients and disturbances caused by sags and swells on the transmission lines or distribution
Chapter (2) RELIABILITY OF POWER PLANTS 1.1 INTRODUCTION The importance of reliability in industry is increasing due to factors such as high cost and impact of system failure, increasing complexity and sophistication of systems, and competition. Reliability engineering is implemented by taking structured actions towards maximizing the reliability of systems and minimizing the effects of failures. Generally, three steps are necessary to achieve this objective. These steps are related to the life cycle of the system. In the first stage of the system, which is the design and development stage, it is essential to build maximum reliability into the system.
From the study, a simulation model is suggested for simulating the Waterfall software development life cycle using Simphony.NET. In fact, the Simphony.NET is useful because it provide a ranked modelling feature which a project can be represented by an abstracted model at a higher level that contains a limited number of modelling elements and relations. The Waterfall model is enable to understand and easy to use. Furthermore, the phases of this model are processed and finish one at a time without overlap. The results or outcomes.
The learning problem consists of inferring the function that joins the input and the output in a predictive fashion, such that the learned function can be used to predict present output from future input. Depending of the type of output, supervised learning problems are either problems of regression or classification. If the output takes a continuous range of values, it is a regression problem. For eg, in Ohm’s law, a regression could be performed with voltage as input and current as output. The regression would find the depencency between voltage and current to be such that
During these teleconferences, we discussed about the optimal solution we could set up for the static testing. He actually presented his willingness to validate his model with us by the measurement of the 3D deflection of the beam and not three but only one rotation angle: the torsion angle (that is the rotation about the RSS longitudinal axis). We also discussed about the disposition of the reflective markers on the
For this type of fault, fast protection is provided by the unbalance protection. However, depending on the applied scheme and the fault type, the unbalance current may be out of the normal reliable operating range of the unbalance protection. For example, if a flashover occurs across the entire limb, the current in the neutral connection can be very high. Also for certain capacitor bank configurations, some faults within the bank will not cause an unbalance signal and will remain undetected, for example phase-to-phase Therefore, if the unbalance protection fails to operate, the initial fault may spread until it becomes severe enough to operate the short circuit protection resulting to considerable damage. For these reasons, a backup protection for the unbalance protection is recommended.
2.4 Clock drift and clock skew An inevitable problem when working with synchronization is the one of clock drift, which just as the name implies is the drift of a clock often compared to a nominal perfect reference clock. No matter the accuracy of the clock, all clocks will drift sooner or later. Therefore it needs to be considered especially when working with synchronization. Clock skew is another important phenomenon that needs to be considered. When talking about clock skew in general it often refers to the fact that not all components in an electrical circuit receive the clock signal at exactly the same time.
1.4 Overview of forward backward sweep method: The effectiveness of the backward forward sweep method in the analysis of radial distribution systems has already been proven by researchers, by comparing it to the traditional load flow methods. The forward backward sweep method is commonly used due to its computational efficiencies and solution accuracies  . One of the distinguishing features of the radial distribution network is that there is a unique path from any given bus to the source. This is the key feature exploited by the backward/forward sweep class of algorithm . This method is based on updating voltages and currents or power flows along the unique distribution paths.
There are different types of power outages too, they are categorized into three different phenomena, relating to the duration and effect of the outage, these can either be from one of the three that follow: a permanent fault is a massive loss of power typically caused by a fault on a power line. A brownout is a drop-in voltage in an electrical power supply. And a blackout is a total loss of power to an area and is the most severe form of power outage that can occur. Power failures are particularly critical depending on the place that loses electricity, a power outage can cause public safety to be at risk, institutions such as hospitals, shelters, sewage treatment plants, mines will have backup sources of electricity coming from standby generators, which automatically start up when electrical power is lost. Restoring power after a wide-area outage can be difficult, as the cause, say, power stations that went down need to be brought back on-line.