Internal criticisms of functionalism Robert Merton (1910-2003), an influential functionalist, criticises Parsons’ views, suggesting that Parsons assumes that everything is indispensable when in practice there is a wide range of possible alternatives. Merton also disagrees with Parsons when he assumes that all parts of society are integrated as a whole, and each part has a knock-on effect. Merton argues that it is difficult to see the connection between some parts of society. He would also disagree that there is a ‘universal functionalism’ where everything performs positive roles, arguing that some things are dysfunctional for other parts. The assumption that society is always smooth running is untrue and he also adds that there are differences between the manifest and latent functions.
In the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell, the idea of mechanisms of control plays a large part by which society functions. Seeing as how there is more than one way in which the methods of control restrict society in their ability to rebel. The reason being that so many methods of control are present is because I believe that certain ways in which the control is set out do not affect all people, hence the empowered party intends to introduce various ways such that all members of the current society are included. The reason being that it is believed that the novel is extremely dystopian is that it is a common belief that when Orwell wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four, his intent was to represent a future that he was afraid of. The idea of the world represented in the novel, is exactly the world that Orwell did not wish the future to be.
My perception of my body and matter in general is that it is in its essence divisible (Descartes,1641) This essay here will insert a reference to ‘Leibnitz’s Law’ or otherwise the relatively intuitive principle that for two things to be the same thing, they must share all the qualities of each other. Descartes does not specifically do so, but it is heavily inferred from his argument. Descartes now concludes that since minds are indivisible and bodies are, that according to the Leibnitz’s law they cannot be the same thing and hence: Conclusion: The mind is substantively different from the body and indeed matter in general. Because in this conception the mind is substantively distinct from the body it becomes plausible for us to doubt the intuitive connection between mind and body. Indeed there are many aspects of the external world that do not appear to have minds and yet appear none the less real in spite of this for example mountains, sticks or lamps, given this we can begin to rationalize that perhaps minds can exist without bodies, and we only lack the capacity to perceive them.
In this passage from The Ethics of Authenticity the author Charles Taylor is writing on the topic of authenticity on what it means to for people to have unique lives and to be different from those in our society. In the first part of the passage Taylor points out that modern society believes that morality comes is rooted in our emotions and is found within ourselves. He claims that this morality within can often be drowned out by our passions in life and by our society around us (Taylor 51). He argues that our modern society believes that morality should not be affected by our society but should come solely from within ourselves not from our environment. This means that an individual can only discover what is moral by looking within and listening
Power creates subjects. Foucault proclaims that we are products of the self. We are in relation to ourselves and we take action. Foucault was fascinated by what one or a group has to suppress and reject to form a positive conception of itself. He believed that our conception of ourselves as subjects depends on controlling or excluding whole classes of people who do not fit our enlightened category of "normal”.
Perception is the organisation, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. Like perception, logic plays a role in critical thinking. Critical thinking is the process in which one mentally explores deeper than the superficial matters at hand into the deeper layers in order to find out what the real issues are. However, when it comes to weighing their beneficial impact on the critical thinking process, logic and perception are by no means equal. While logic is firmly rooted in reason, perceptions are just as firmly rooted in one’s senses and can easily be corrupted.
Rhetorical Analysis Persuasion is the result of the combination of components driving an audience to support a position. While some techniques are effective, they can be misused, misguided, and misunderstood, generating a lack of application to society. Following the foundations of persuasion, one must develop their own credibility, use logic, and emotions. In Kobutsu Malone’s article “Narcissism and Spiritual Materialism: The New Age Legacy”, there is a noticeable lack of the rhetorical strategies, ethos, pathos, and logos, belittling the persuasive effectiveness, as well as the poor utilization of kairos and style reducing the strength of his overall argument. Within the article Malone expresses his desire for the New Age to stop materializing
We see many philosophers base their beliefs on something specific however Descartes philosophy comes from extreme scepticism also known as nihilism. He begins his philosophy by having disbelief in the true existence of anything at all. Descartes main aim was to attain certainty. He had a desire to be certain about the things that truly exist and those that do not. He believed that once he could be truly certain of one thing that he could re-build the world from there for the better.
The notion of "meme," as described in Susan Blackmore's essay "Strange Creatures" is a rather confusing topic. She tends to give us a sense of humiliation, suggesting that we are nothing but imitations or copies of other, indicating that we are not creative enough to innovate ideas our self. However, Alain de Botton's essay "On Habit" can serve as an interpretation to the fact that us humans are creative enough to innovate our own new ideas, and that the word "meme" does not really tell us everything about the world. The main problem lying within the notion of "meme" is that it seems to be too negative. It willfully obscures the idea of human creativity and innovation.
Cultural relativism has a variety of definitions, but the main idea is that a universal code of ethics does not exist--it varies culture to culture. Rachel’s examines cultural relativism in “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” and argues that there are commonalities of ethics throughout every culture. Rachels sections off his argument to better explain what they believe. In this piece, they argue that cultural relativism is not a proper theory. They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it.