For clarity and emphasis, this study is anchored on Canale and Swain’s (1987) communicative competence theory. According to Canale and Swain (1987), there is a need of communicative competence as a synthesis of an underlying system of knowledge and skill needed for communication. In their concept of communicative competence, ‘knowledge’ refers to the conscious or unconscious knowledge of an individual about language and about other aspects of language use. According to them, there are three types of knowledge: knowledge of underlying grammatical principles, knowledge of how to use language in a social context in order to fulfill communicative functions and knowledge of how to combine utterances and communicative functions with respect to discourse
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
Communication cannot be separated from our lives. When people do communication, there are sentences which are uttered by the sender to the receiver, those sentences implied meaning that depends on who is the speaker, who is the audience, where does it take place, on what time, and how the context of situation where the sentences are uttered. Pragmatics is one of the linguistics studies that deal with this kind of thing. According to Levinson (1983:9) he stated that pragmatics is the study which are talking about relations between language and context that are symbolize in the structure of language. According to Yule (1996:3) pragmatics is the study of meaning that communicated by the speaker to the listener.
Honours is General Linguistics Theme 1: Language and Communication in Diverse Contexts Assignment Jenna Crossley 17402468 Task 1 Communicative competence in intercultural communication can be discussed in terms of components of intercultural communicative competence, the criteria for establishing intercultural communicative competence, and sympathy and empathy as possible determiners of intercultural communication. Three components of intercultural communication competence include the knowledge blocks component, the mindfulness component and the communication skills component. The knowledge blocks component entails a process of understanding intercultural communication concepts on a deeper level with the aim of being able to place oneself
A semantic role is a relationship that a participant has with the main verb in the clause. While syntactic analysis focuses on sentences and all the function words in a sentence, the semantic analysis focuses primarily on meaning, i.e. on the proposition expressed in a sentence. A proposition is meaningful and it can be expressed either in different sentences or in parts of sentences. In order to do semantic analysis, we have to distinguish inflection from a proposition.
According to David Crystal [7, p. 240], pragmatics is the study of language from the point of view of its users, especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interactions and the effects their use of language have on other participants in the act of communication. G. Kasper (1993) defines the term as “the study of people's comprehension and production of linguistic action in context” [17, p. 3]. The words action and context, two crucial elements of speech acts in language are included there. Thus, the linguist uses the term linguistic action which defines the learner’s capacity to produce an
Elements of speaking Harmer (2001, p.296) mentions the elements of speaking which allude to the language features that learners ought to know about. Moreover to the processes of language and information in the same time when an interlocutor collaborates with them. (As cited in, Saci.S 2013, p.16, 17). 1.2.1 Language features The following features are indispensable for a dynamic
In addition, the relationship between types of sentences and functions will determine whether the speaker’s utterance is categorized as direct or indirect speech act. Literature review Classification of Speech Acts The sentence is an important element of language because people do use a sentence to utter