Systemic Grammatical Metaphor

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2- Literature Review : Michael Halliday (1985) has argued that language is a system for making meanings. It is a semantic system. He found that linguists have become so interested in the code that they forgot that language is a social phenomenon. It involves people, places, times, events, and social meanings. Language is a social expression of human interactions and written communication provides a record of these public events. Halliday differed from other linguists in their description of how language functions within a social situation, so the review sheds light on the systematic functional linguistics and grammatical Metaphor, especially the first type "ideational grammatical Metaphor.

2.1 Systemic Functional Grammar Systemic
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Functional Grammar defines metaphors as variations in the expression of meaning rather than just variations in the use of words. Functional Grammar looks at metaphors from a different perspective, not asking “how is this word used?” but “how is this meaning expressed?” or “how is grammar structured to make the text effective in the achievement of purpose?” There is a kind of transference going on, the transfer of representation between different grammatical categories. The difference in the message is the kind of meaning variation which Halliday (1994) calls Grammatical…show more content…
Processes are realized as a configuration of transitivity functions which represent the process, the participant in the situation, the attributes assigned to participants, and the circumstances associated with the process. This leads Halliday (1994) to the assumption that ideational grammatical metaphor is called metaphors of transitivity.

In line with Haliday's assumption, Taverniers (2003:8) explains the reason is that “the grammatical variation between congruent and incongruent forms applies to transitivity configurations and can be analyzed in terms of the functional structure of the configurations.” Thus, in its analysis, the congruent forms, which are the typical forms of lexicogrammatical realization and incongruent/metaphorical forms are compared to see the grammatical contrasts between the constituents. IGM is the first type of grammatical metaphor, which is concerned with the construction of an alternative view of reality, by means of rearranging lexciogrammatical
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