Multifaceted Sport: Association Football

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Introduction
Association Football, or more formally known as soccer is a multifaceted sport, in which success hinges on physical, technical, and tactical factors according to Stolen et al, (2005). Regarding the elite level of football, Reilly et al, (2000) specified that a number of physical and anthropometric prerequisites are necessary to compete. Over the course of a 45-week season, elite European football teams play more than 60 competitive matches, in addition to several pre-season friendlies (Lago-Peňas et al., 2011; Carling et al., 2012). Therefore, at specific times of the year players will be required to play multiple times within a single week, most notably the Christmas to new-year period within the English Premier league. The purpose
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However, when elite players have only 48-72 hours between matches, as depicted in Figure (1.1) the opportunity to restore glycogen and repair muscle damage can be difficult, thus leading to increased injury according to Dupont et al., (2010). Furthermore, Lago-Peňas et al. (2011) found that injury risk increased when less than 96-hours separated matches. Collins and Rollo, (2014) highlight that consistent recovery strategies can allow players’ muscles to recover quickly in the hours post-exercise and adapt to the training stimulus longer-term. Therefore, the ability to facilitate post-match recovery is desirable. This review will present practical strategies in relation to the refuelling phase, repair and adaptation phase, and rehydration phase after a football match. Furthermore, the effects of (creatine) (caffeine) and (Omega-3) supplementation are addressed to highlight their role as ergogenic aids in relation to refuelling and recovery between football matches during a congested football fixture…show more content…
This is especially important when the 48-hour post exercise recovery period coincides with the 48-hour preparation phase for the next match. Hausswirth and LE Meur, (2011) and Burke et al., (1993) state after a single competitive football match, it can take players up to 72-hours before muscle glycogen restoration is achieved regardless of regimes that target carbohydrate and protein replacement. In Burke’s (2010) article on ‘Fuelling strategies to optimise performance’ he stated optimal performance is largely attributed to carbohydrate availability. This statement is reinforced by Nicholas et al., (1997) who found players consuming a high carbohydrate (10g⋅kg−1⋅day−1) displayed the ability to carry out more repeated high intensity sprints over a one-week period compared to players consuming only (5g⋅kg−1⋅day−1) carbohydrate. However, research has failed to report an increase in glycogen concentrations above pre-match levels 48-hours after a game, despite the ingestion of a high carbohydrate diet up to (10g⋅kg−1⋅day−1). Similarly, when whey protein is accompanied with a carbohydrate rich diet it has failed to increase glycogen resynthesis when compared to a normal diet according to Gunnarsson et al.,
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