Here again engineers designing one's house cannot be aware of the forces due to earthquake which will come from the neighbouring house, who will be sharing your external wall or structural frame with his. This system is totally against the principle of earthquake proof construction and design since this puts in an unknown factor regarding moments and horizontal forces for which the walls or building frames are to be designed. Further this is also against the provision of the I.S Code where a building or structure is to be separated every 30m for allowing expansion caused due to properties of building materials. Thus it is advised that in areas where high intensity earthquakes are expected the following precautions be taken: 1. Municipal and other housing bodies should insure that a suitable gap is provided between two adjoining buildings at the time of
According to M.M Ali and K.S Moon, for twenty storey building, rigid frame structural system is appropriate for resisting vertical loads as well as lateral loads. Figure.1 shows the perspective view of all building models that are considered for this study. Those buildings are given the name as L shape, V shape and T shape according to the geometric shape they have. Also the buildings with name P, Q and R are the Models in which relative study can be made about vertical geometric irregularity in a building. In these models more than one setback is being provided.
Faculty of Engineering Cairo University Irrigation Design Works Term Paper Different methods of slope stability and retaining walls Submitted by: Ibraheem Mohammad Saeed ID: 1122331 Submitted to: Dr. Mostafa Ahmad Ghaith A retaining wall is a type of structures that is needed when -usually- soil needs to be held back. This doesn’t allow the soil to erode or slide. The design of a retaining wall depends mainly on the pressure produced by the material it retains. There are several types of retaining walls: 1) Gravity walls a) Reinforced gravity wall: i) Concrete cantilever ii) Counter-fort/Buttressed iii) Precast concrete 2) Brick 3) Stone 4) Reinforced soil walls a) Reinforced Soil b) Soil Nailing 5) Hybrid system a) Anchored Earth b) Tailed Gabion c) Tailed Concrete Block d) Miscellaneous 1) Gravity Retaining Walls: This type of retaining walls depends on its massive weight to hold and retain the
First one is in which brick masonry is the load taken members, which are obsolete now days and in the second type reinforced concrete frame structure is constructed and the brick masonry wall is used as a packing carnal. Construction of the building by using the first method is only reliable when the building has to resist only vertical loads. But frame type system is suitable for the resisting of vertical as well as horizontal load. In the earthquake lying down area frame structure buildings are constructed from the safety point of view. A frame structure (building) is considered in the present study and in which beam and column are modelled.
By and large, stone work has better protection abilities for airborne noise. Be that as it may, stud walls lined with acoustic appraised sheeting can break even with or beat the protection levels of masonry walls at a small amount of the weight. This will just happen on the off chance that they are built as per the suitable acoustic development rules. Some restrictive frameworks will achieve elevated amounts of sound protection. Blockwork Walls Blockwork performs dependably in the event that it is very much built and of sufficient mass or thickness.
The research concentrates on a computer based push-over analysis technique In this present study, nonlinear analysis of Steel frame using ANSYS 14.5 under the horizontal loading has been carried out. • M.K Rahman, M. Ajmal & M.H Baluch (2012) This paper presents a nonlinear static analysis for seismic performance evaluation of an existing eight-story reinforced concrete frame-shear wall building in Madinah. The building has a dome, reinforced concrete frame systems at different floor levels. The seismic displacement response of the RC frame-shear wall building is obtained using the 3D pushover analysis. • S.P.
CHAPTER 4 PROBLEM OF STATEMENT & METHODOLOGY 4.1 Selection of building plan A multistory frame building is taken into consideration. Building having a RCC shear wall throughout the height of building. Details of multistory frame building are as follows. Storey of building : G+ 12 storey Frame type : Special moment resisting frame structure Floor to floor height : 3.5 m Seismic zone : Zone III Soil type : Medium soil (Type II) Shear wall : 230 mm thick 4.2 Analyze the building plan. Analyze the building plan is as follows.
2.2.3 Building orientation Properly oriented buildings take advantage of solar radiation and prevailing wind. According to Gut and Ackerknecht (1993), the longest axis of the building should lie along the east-west direction for minimizing solar heat gain by the building envelope . Wong and Li (2007) performed field measurements and computational energy simulations to examine the effectiveness of passive control methods such as building orientation in buildings of Singapore. Their results state that the best orientation for a building in Singapore with its tropical is for the long axis of the building to lie along the east-west direction. 2.2.4 External Walls As the main goal in building design is reduction of direct heat gain by radiation
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Shock absorber has the function of dissipating any energy in the vertical motion of the body of the vehicle cause by disturbances such as rough roads and driving conditions. This is achieved by converting the up and down motion of the vehicle into heat energy, by means of hydraulic oil, which eventually will be release to the surrounding. The shock absorber also can provide a driver with comfortable driving conditions as well as able to reduce the rate of swaying, bouncing and the motion due to sudden braking and accelerating. There are various types of dampers exist which are used commonly in vehicles and hydraulic machines today, mainly categorized as the mono-tube and the twin-tube dampers. The twin-tube
A concrete block triplet specimen is used to obtain shear bond strength of concrete block mortar joint. The joint thickness of the mortar of 10mm is maintained for all the 4 cases. Capping of 10mm thick (1:1 cement mortar) is provided for the top face of concrete block and bottom faces of the outer concrete blocks. Vertical load is applied gradually till the bond between concrete block and mortar joint failed. Hence shear bond strength is estimated and is calculated using the formula given below.