Some chinese writings show that a substance pai-t’ung (white copper) was used between 1700 and 1400 bc; however, people did not know what the substance was back then and they did not know how to isolate it -Later when German miners in medieval times mined Nickel from the ground, they called it Kuperfulnickel because they had found a reddish ore that looked like copper ore, but when they tried to remove the copper from it, all they got was a useless piece of the earth. All they could use it for was give a green hue to glass and nothing else. They called it Kupfernickel because it meant “Old Nick’s Copper” and the miners thought that the devil Old Nick was playing around with them, so they called it “Old Nick’s Copper”. This same situation occurred with cobalt miners because Nickel looked very similar to cobalt but acted very differently. In the end, a swedish chemist named Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1722-65) found out that Nickel was actually a new substance when he tried testing it to see if it acted like copper or cobalt and he found out it did not.
Pascal’s triangle is a triangular arrangement of binomial coefficients. It’s is named after French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), in the western world. Despite the fact that pascal’s triangle is named after Blaise pascal, other mathematicians from India, Persia (Iran), China, Germany, and Italy knew about and applied their knowledge of the triangle centuries before he was born. Halayudha a 10th century Indian mathematician and commentator gave the first clear description of Pascal’s triangle in his commentary in an ancient Indian book called Chandah Shastra. Not long after that, a Persian poet and mathematician by the name of Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) and a Chinese mathematician by the name of Yang Hui (1238–1298) had both discussed this mathematical triangle and so the triangle is referred to as Khayyam’s triangle in Iran and Yang Hui’s Triangle in China.
This point is valid to a certain extent, after it was released to the public that the shroud was a fake many tried to disprove this by coming up with theories that explain the reasoning for the dates being so late. Joe Marino and Sue Bedford were a couple who like many others had doubts about the results of the carbon tests. After years of playing detective the couple believed that they had finally found a logical explanation as to why the carbon dating produced such a late creation date. Their theory stated that the scientists working on the shroud had taken a piece of fabric that had been restored with a special technique that blended the two different sections together, consequently the date of the test was
Turning Severus Snape’s life upside down - Motivations and reasons behind reading and writing fan fictions For as almost everyone knows at least the name Harry Potter, many would be surprised to know how many versions besides the original canon exist. Some fans even go so far to make it their mission to rewrite all seven books through the lens of other characters. One of the longest stories of that kind written in German can be found on the website FanFiktion.de, consisting out of 629 chapters and more than 4 million words at the moment with the author still working on it. Such narratives are called fan fictions and are, as already in the name, written by fans. All stories are as unique as their authors and so are also the motivations and
Other alloying elements are added to the principal element to impart the now formed alloy with desired properties, forming an alloy family based on the principal elements. However, the number of elements in the periodic table which can be used for such conventional alloying is limited, thus the alloy families we can develop are also limited. Here comes the concept of High Entropy Alloys. High Entropy Alloys or HEAs for short, are alloying systems
(Nikhat Parveen, 2013) Conclusion It is a pity that Fibonacci's work in number theory was almost wholly ignored and virtually unknown during the Middle ages and three hundred years later people only realise he was a genius. Fibonacci was one of the greatest mathematicians of the 12th and 13th centuries. He made significant contributions to mathematics through his own discoveries, and was instrumental in the revival of mathematical learning in Europe following the Dark Ages. (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
This equation could also be interpreted as a more general version of the Pythagorean Theorem, as both are concerned with the sums of squares of whole numbers. Since Fermat did not publish his work, his last theorem was discovered in a copy of Diophantus’ Arithmetica without a formal proof. In 1994, British mathematician Andrew Wiles officially proved Fermat’s Last Theorem by connecting elliptic curves with modular
It was discovered in 1817 by Fredrich Stromeyer as an impurity in zinc carbonate. The metal was named after the Latin word for calamine, since the metal was found in this zinc compound.Cadmium containing ores are rare and are found to occur in small quantities.However, traces do naturally occur in phosphate, and have been shown to transmit in food through fertilizer application . Gadreenockite (CdS), the only cadmium mineral of importance, is nearly associated with sphalerite (ZnS).As a consequence, cadmium is produced mainly as a byproduct from mining,smelting and refining sulfide ores of zinc, and, to a lesser degree, lead and copper. Small amounts of cadmium, about 10% of consumption, are produced from secondary sources, mainly from dust generated by recycling iron and steelscrap. Production in the United States began in 1907, but it was not until after World War I that cadmium came into wide use.
There are more than 100 manuscripts containing such poetry, but all of them are comparatively late, the earliest such source that can be dated with confidence was written in 1460, and the bulk dates to the 17th to 19th centuries. Bodleian MS. Ouseley 140, a manuscript written in Shiraz in 1460, contains 158 quatrains on 47 folia. The manuscript belonged to William Ouseley (1767-1842) and was purchased by the Bodleian Library in 1844. Omar Khayyam was a pioneer in mathematics, literature and astronomies. The man himself is a genius and also enigmatic at the same time.
If we consider this book on a conceptual level, the lessons are not so much about color as they are about the fact that humans are limited in what they can see, and if artists can understand those limitations, they can potentially expand the perceptual range of those who encounter their work. Goethe conducted interesting experiments for the last 40 years of his life. Because he claims that “nothing can actually be proved by experiments” and declares that, in his time, he is the only person who knew the truth about the difficult science of colors, I believe that Goethe is correct about his statements. I think he is right because of the Internet sensation