The graph shows the optimum time course for the protease catalyzed reaction, showing 30 minutes to be the optimum time period, above which no change was observed. Figure 4.2: Time course of enzyme catalyzed reaction for protease isolated from O. basilicum 4.3.2 pH optima The pH of the reaction mixture containing protease was varied from 3-10. The enzyme was found to show maximum activity at pH 5 (Figure 4.3) in contrary with the results obtained by Vidyalakshmi and Selvi. Figure 4.3: pH optima of protease enzyme isolated from O. basilicum by incubating the reaction mixture at pH ranging from 3-11. 4.3.3 Temperature Optima The optimum temperature for activity of protease enzyme isolated from O. basilicum was determined by varying the temperature from 10-900C.
After 7 hours, the highest conversion was obtained as 38% at 70oC in the batch reactor. Under the same reaction conditions, the highest conversion 70oC was obtained as 89% in the CMR. Effect of the catalyst concentration on levulinic acid conversions in the batch reactor and in the CMR Different ratios of SO4-2/ZrO2 loaded catalytic membranes were prepared and experiments were performed by using equimolar reactant (M=1) at 70oC. Figure 2 shows the change of levulinic acid conversion values in the catalyst loading
3.3.4 Preparation of CaCl2 solution The molecular weight of CaCl2 was 111 g/mole. Weighed 11.1g CaCl2 and dissolved into 100ml distilled water. The final CaCl2 concentration would be 1M. CaCl2 solution was used to make bottom agar and initiate the infection cycle. 3.4 Selection of most sensitive strain to bacteriophages to make new stock culture Starting culture was prepared by inoculating 1ml (1×109 CFU/ml) stock Lactococcus lactis ssp.
Concentration of soluble phosphate was estimated using the standard curve of KH2PO4. 2.2.5. Organic phosphate solubilization Organic phosphate solubilization was determined by the ability of the bacterial isolate to hydrolyze phytate by producing enzyme phytase. Isolated organisms were grown in phytate screening media (PSM) containing (%): glucose, 2; KCl, 0.05; CaCl2, 0.2; NH4NO3, 0.5; MgSO4 0.05; MnSO40.001; FeSO4, 0.001; sodium phytate, 0.2; and agar, 1.5 (pH 7) at 37 ºC for 2-3 days. Formation of clear zone around the colony indicates phytase production.
Plant D experienced an average growth rate of 2,78mm per day over the 9 days. Plant D increased in leaf width at a standard rate for the first 12 days of the experiment experiencing and average growth rate of 0,67mm per day over the 12 days. This increase shows a healthy condition of the plant for the first few days. Plant D’s leaf length began to decrease for the remaining 13 days of the experiment. The leaf length decreased at an average rate of 1mm per day over the 13 days.
From dilutions 10-4 to 10-6 , 0.1 ml of each sample was spread onto nutrient agar plates containing 0.0016% (w/v) sodium azide and were kept for incubation at 37ºC for 24-48 hrs. The colonies showing the morphological characters like small, pin point, circular, translucent, convex and moist were selected. Each of selected colonies was cultured on to blood agar plates and pike streptococcal agar plates. The purity of the selected isolates was assured and the strains showing hemolysis on blood agar plates and gram positive cocci in chains were selected for
Conductivity increased from 22mS cm-1 to 36mS cm-1 due to the dissolution of salts into the leachate. The conductivity reached its lowest level (9.5 mS cm-1) at day 700 and seemed to increase towards the end of the experiment (day 700). The dissolved oxygen was depleted during the first two weeks of operation reaching values that fluctuated between 0 and 0.1 mgO2 L-1 3.1.2 Biological parameters Production of biogas started slowly during the first 180 days of operation, where approximately 3 m3 of biogas were produced, mainly composed of CO2. However from day 180, the biogas production started to increase dramatically until day 500, in which period the biogas composition changed to 65%CH4 -
In this case, 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC) inhibitor is added by pump inside the third distillation tower. The distillation tower contains a structured packing of stainless steel mesh which is tantamount to 36 theoretical plates. Ethylbenzene and styrene, both are having similar boiling points, require 70–100 trays for their separation. Since styrene and ethylbenzene almost have similar boiling points, their
Montmorillonite K10 (Na+MMT) (Himadia), Ion exchange resin (CDH), sulfuric acid (1.84 g cm-3, 98 wt%; Merck), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol were used as recieved. SPEEK Synthesis SPEEK was prepared through the via of sulfonation reaction by using concentrated sulfuric acid at desired temperature. The dried PEEK pellets were ground well with the help of a martter for reducing dissolution time of the PEEK polymer. 5 g of crushed PEEK polymer were added slowly into 100 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid solution under stirring rate about 900 rpm till to reach a dark and viscous solution. Then the degree of sulfonation was controlled by changing the reaction time at constant temperature about 50 ºC[Erce Sengul, Hulya Erdener, R. Gultekin Akay, Hayrettin Yucel, Nurcan Bac, Inci Eroglu, international journal of
3.1. Mass multiplication: Using the technique of Micropropagation Micropropagation has made invaluable contribution to agriculture by enabling the production of disease free, quality planting material of commercial plants and fruit trees, throughout the year. It is a technique for in-vitro growth of plantlets from any part of the plant in a suitable nutrient medium under controlled aseptic conditions. These organs are usually stems, roots or modified underground structures. Micropropagation is based on the theory of totipotency i.e.