Task-based language teaching can be obtained by slightly changing how original textbook materials are applied by adjusting classroom management, activity order and activity balance. Furthermore, characteristics of task-based instruction can supplement the existing textbook materials by finding more exciting starting points, extending the activities and defining the target of activities more clearly (Willis, 1996). Phases of the Task-based Framework Researchers have been suggested different sequencing frameworks for TBI (Ellis, 2003; Lee, 2000; Prabhu, 1987; Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996). They assume three phases in common for TBI. Ellis (2003) names these phases as 'pre-task, 'during-task' and 'post-task', whereas Willis (1996) divides these phases into 'pre-task', 'task cycle' and 'language focus'.
Assessment Assessment is used to determine if learning has occurred during instructional process (Smith and Ragan, 2005, pg.10). There are 2 form of assessment in the program: formative assessment and summative assessment. Learners will be evaluated by verbal questionings and 1 supervised practice using a skill checklist (Appendix 2) as formative assessment. From Melland and Volden (1998) discussion, classroom assessment is a type of formative assessment, 3 domains of learning which is cognitive, psychomotor and affective can be assess. When engaged in instructional design, it is less common for the designer to have affective objectives than cognitive objectives (Smith and Ragan, 2005, pg.
Task-based language teaching (TBLT), the approach which Ellis describes and advocates, involves designing whole courses around tasks, and is related to a strong version of CLT. Ellis (2003) distinguishes TBLT from ‘task-supported language teaching’, which simply combines task use with traditional pedagogy, and is consistent with a weak version of CLT. TBLT focuses on the use of language and on meaningful activities using target language, for e.g., conducting an interview or visiting a doctor. Assessment is based on task outcome rather than on accuracy of language forms. 2.3.
GTA Presentation: Assessment What is assessment? Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. (Huba and Freed, 2000) Assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about the learning and development of students. It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and using information to increase students’ learning and development. (Erwin, 1991) Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and
Chapter one sheds the light on the theoretical side of this research work. It is divided into two main parts: the first part will be concerned with assessments in general and the second part with the assessment of the speaking skill in particular. The first part first introduces the definition of the key concepts of the study, then mention in some detailed way the main principles of tests and testing. After that, it provides a historical point of view of testing and assessments. The second part firstly investigates the nature of the term speaking providing different views.
In KELS the practitioner must ask a question to a client and have the client perform a task, while ACLS-5 has the practitioner perform a leather lacing stitches. The success of the assessment relies upon the practitioner way of motivating a client; both assessments need the client's full participation to for proper data for evaluation (Early, 2017). The task-oriented portion of both assessments is evident. KELS uses daily tasks for its assessments such a task as making a change to simulate a transaction where the evaluator will present a product with a price. Then the client pretends to buy an item, giving the evaluator the currency needed for the product and the client counts the change provided by the evaluator, thus simulating an IADL (Early, 2017).
As a result, they came up with a variety of recommendations in line with wide-ranging problems of the institutions. For instance, a research conducted by Meseret (2012) was confined teachers and students perceptions and practices in Haramaya University. His finding showed that instructors had favourable perceptions about the contribution of task-based writing to the development of students’ writing ability, but they lacked confidence to implement task-based writing because of their students’ poor writing. Tewodros (2014) carried out a study on the writing tasks in grade nine English textbook based on task-based approach principles in Gode SOS high school, and revealed that there was a variety of task-based writing tasks were explicitly provided in grade nine English textbook, which were categorized under controlled guided and free types of writing tasks. His study also revealed that only few writing tasks were provided in the textbook that encourage learners to perform writing through process approach to writing which was considered as major limitation of the writing tasks.
Unfortunately, ﬁndings from classroom assessment research has revealed a gap between the recommended and the actual assessment practices regardless of teachers’ gender and teaching experience (Alsarimi, 2000). Brookhart (2001) stated that “grading theory and practices will be better connected once the role of classroom assessment and grading practices in student achievement motivation and, it seems reasonable to argue that to be able to understand and make sense out of the gap between assessment experts’ recommendations and teachers’ assessment practices, it is important to ﬁnd out the possible effects of these practices on students’ achievement goals as one aspect of student motivation for learning. Improved tests can still be improved further
Language Tasks The notion of ‘task’ has the main role in TBLT. In some books, the word “task” has been used as a label for various activities including grammar exercises, practice activities and role-plays. Whereas, Willis and Willis (2001), claim that tasks and grammatical exercises are two different matters. Learners are free to use a range of language structures to achieve tasks' outcomes. Skehan (1996a) defines task as 'an activity in which: meaning is primary; there is some sort of relationship to the real world; task completion has some priority; and the assessment of task performance is in terms of task outcome' (as cited in Ellis, 2003, p.4).
I. Literature review 1. Definition of Testing Throughout history, testing, assessment and evaluation play a vital role in the process of language teaching and learning. Testing is one of the fundamental tools to measure students English language acquisition. McNamara (2003) gave a detailed definition of a language test, which is “a procedure for gathering evidence of general or specific language abilities from performance on tasks designed to provide a basis for predictions about an individual’s use of those abilities in real world contexts.” (p. 11).